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Full text of "Picturing childhood : illustrated children's books from University of California collections, 1550-1990"

Picturin 




hildhood 



Illustrated Childrens Books from University of California Collections, 1550-1990 





Picturing Childhood 



The publication of this 
catalogue was made 
possible by a grant 
from Lloyd E. Cotseti 




LL t-illl 



MSM^iS^Ags^ 



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Major support for the 
exhibition was provided by the 
National Endowment for the Arts, 
a federal agency; Northern Trust 
Bank of California; and 
the Good Works Foundation 



Picturin 




hildhood 



Illustrated Childrens Books from University of California Collections, 1550-1990 



Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts 

Department of Special Collections, University Research Library 

University of California, Los Angeles 



This catalogue was published in conjunction 

with an exhibition held at UCLA at 

the Armand Hammer Museum of Art and 

Cultural Center, Los Angeles, 

April 16 through June 29, 1997. 

Published by the Grunwald Center for 
the Graphic Arts and the Department of 
Special Collections at the LIniversity Research 
Library, UCLA. 

Copyright (9 1997 by the Regents of the 
Universitv of California. AH rights reserved. 

ISBN 0-9628162-6-4 



Editor: Karen Jacobson 

Designer: LiUi Colton 

Photography: Robert Wedemeyer, except tor 

pp. 1, 49, 55, by Lou Meluso 

Exhibition design (see photos, pp. 6, 8, 62): 

Mitchell Browning 

Time line design (see photo, p. 60): 

Deborah Edwards 

Front cover: Walter Crane, illustration tor 

Beauty and the Beast, 1874 (cat. no. 326) 

Inside front cover: Gustave Dore, Puss in Boots, 

from Fairy Realm, by Tom Hood, 1865 (cat. 

no. 177) ' 

Page 1: Kay Nielsen, Scheherazade Telling the 

Tales, from One Thousand and One Nights, 

1918-22 (cat. no. 415) 

Title page: George Cruikshank, illustration 

from Cinderella, 1854 (cat. no. 168); Howard 

Pyle, illustrated initial from The Wonder Clock, 

1888(cat. no. 392) 

Back cover: Harold B. Lentz, The Pop-Up 

Mother Goose, 1933 (cat. no. 197) 



Reproduction Credits 

Fig. 26: Reproduced with the permission of 
Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 
an imprint of Simon & Schuster Children's 
Publishing Division. 



Contents 



David Rodes, Gloria Wertier 7 Foreword 



Cynthia Biirlinghi 



am 



9 Introduction and Acknowledgments 



Cynthia Barlinghaiii 11 Picturing Childhood: The Evolution 

of the Illustrated Children's Book 
with a Checklist of the Exhibition 

13 Establishing Traditions 

19 PubUshing for Children 

29 Movable and Pop-up Books, Toys, and Games 



37 Nineteenth-Century Illustrators 



49 The Twentieth Century 



63 Selected Bibliography 



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The subject of Picturmg Childhood hnn^ifi together the intellectual and collect- 'FVkfP'VlT'O'rri 
ing interests of ucla's world-renowned research library and its distinguished col- 
lection of works of art on paper, the Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts. This 
exhibition and catalogue celebrate not only the remarkable collection of children's 
materials in the library's Department of Special Collections but also the foresight 
of such UCLA librarians as Wilbur Jordan Smith, F. Brooke Whiting, and James 
Davis, who began building this collection long before the subject of childhood 
became a central issue for both the academy and society. Picturing Childhood also 
attests to the Grunwald Center's steadfast interest in the intricate interrelation- 
ships among words and images and art and technology. 

Two matters become increasingly clear as we reflect on the wondrous vari- 
ety of objects in the exhibition. The first is that childhood, as we now think of that 
period between infancy and adulthood, is an invention of the eighteenth century 
in those very few countries of Western Europe that could afford leisure and were 
dedicated to creating and confirming a middle-class elite. The intensity of focus 
on this new "species" reached its apogee in the explosion of splendid illustrated 
books in late Victorian England. The second issue raised concerns the profound 
paradox of purpose that characterizes the meaning of children's books, toys, and 
games. Children's literature has its roots deeply planted in conservative moral teach- 
ing, and its goal is socidization and, often, conformity to prevailing ideology. Yet 
one has only to look at many of the exquisite books shown here — from John Amos 
Comenius's Orbis Sensiialium Pictiis of 1658 to those of Beatrix Potter, Arthur Rack- 
ham, and Dr. Seuss in the present century — to know that the other great function 
of children's books involves the stimulation and liberation of the imagination. Surely, 
more than any other form of literature and art, illustrated children's books can be 
said to respond to the flindamental duality of purpose ascribed to the arts of the 
Western world: to teach and to delight — docere et dekctare. We trust that readers 
of this catalogue and viewers of the exhibition may share in both the learning and 
the pleasure that so characterize the subject. 

We want to thank the three curators of the exhibition, Cynthia Burling- 
ham and Karen Mayers of the Grunwald Center and Patricia Waldron, for their 
imaginative response to a burgeoning field of study and an immense archive of 
materials. We ;ilso thank Director Peter Reill and Librarian Bruce Whiteman of 
the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, ucla, and University Librarian 
Gerald Lowell and Head of the Department of Special Collections Lynda Claassen 
of the Geisel Library of the University of California, San Diego. Major support 
for the exhibition was provided by the National Endowment for the Arts, a fed- 
eral agency; Northern Trust Bank of California; Classical 105.1 kkgo-fm; and the 
Good Works Foundation. Additional support was provided by the Frances and 
Sidney Brody Charitable Fund; Peter and Elizabeth Goulds and L.A. Louver 
Gallery, Venice, California; Mary and Bob Looker; and Susan Payne. 

We wish to acknowledge with gratitude the support of Lloyd Cotsen, 
himself a wise collector of this material and longtime supporter of children's edu- 
cation, who made possible the publication of this catalogue, as well as Dr. and Mrs. 
Albert Nichols, whose generosity made it possible for us to document the e.xhibi- 
tion in an archival video produced by ucla's Office of Instructional Development. 
Finally, we want to thank all those children, whether in their first or later child- 
hoods, who responded to the exhibition with the joy that we believe is inherent in 
the subject of Picturing Childhood. 

David Rodes, Director 

Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts 

Gloria Werner, University Librarian 



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This exhibition features more than tour centuries of illustrated books, 
drawings, movable and pop-up books, toys, and games from selected Univer- 
sity of California collections. The great majority were chosen from the more 
than twenty-five thousand works in the Children's Book Collection in the 
Department of Special Collections at the University Research Library, ucla, 
one of the most significant holdings of children's books in the United States. 
Additional works were selected from ucla's Grunwald Center tor the Graphic 
Arts; the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, ucla; and the Dr. Seuss 
Collection at the Mandeville Special Collections Library, Geisel Library, Uni- 
versity of California, San Diego. Together these ct)llections provide insight into 
a number of issues relevant to the history of children's literature, including how 
society's changing conceptions of childhood shaped the genre of children's books; 
the increasing importance of illustration; the nature of collaboration between 
the writer and the artist-illustrator; and the persistence of traditional stories 
interpreted variously at different times and by different cultures. 

This exhibition and catalogue are the result of the contributions of a 
number of individuals in a variety of departments and institutions over the past 
two years. First and foremost, this project could not have been realized with- 
out the enormous dedication of Karen Mayers and Patricia Waldron. As my 
cocurators for this exhibition, they spent many months researching the collec- 
tions to select the works exhibited here and are responsible tor much of the 
exhibition's direction and substance. 

At the UCLA/Hammer Museum, Mitchell Browning's extraordinary 
installation and case designs created an innovative and visually stimulating 
setting for the variety of works in the exhibition. Deborah Edwards's time line 
enhanced visitors' understanding of the history of the works presented. Lynne 
Blaikie and Maureen McGee prepared and cared tor the objects in the exhibi- 
tion with their usual high standards, and Andrea Bronte, Heather Cantrell, 
Louis Fuller, Jules Hartzell, and Jon Pestoni were ot invaluable assistance 
during the installation. Anne Bennett managed all registrarial aspects of the 
exhibition with great care, and Claudine Dbcon lent her research skills to both 
the exhibition and the catalogue. Cindi Dale, director ot education, devised the 
exceptional educational programming for the exhibition. I also wish to recog- 
nize the efforts of other museum staff, particularly Amy Weinstein, Kelly White, 
Stephanie Rieke, Bryan Coopersmith, Patricia Capps, Layna White, and 
Marpessa Dawn Outlaw. Greg Barnes at the Office of Instructional Develop- 
ment at UCLA created the wonderfiil videos that accompanied the exhibition. 

At the University Research Library at ucla, former Head of the Depart- 
ment of Special Collections David Zeidberg was helpful in the initial plan- 
ning stages, and the present Head, Susan M. AHen, has been extremely responsive 
and supportive. Also at Special Collections, Octavio Olvera provided invalu- 
able support. I am also grateful for the efforts of Brian Schottlaender, James 
Davis, Jeff Rankin, Charlotte Brown, Russell Johnson, Ehzabeth Stacey, and 
Sarah Lesser. Richard Lindemann and Steve Coy at the Mandeville Special 
Collections Library at UC San Diego also deserve thanks. 

For the catalogue, editor Karen Jacobson has worked with her usual care 
and thoroughness in the face of unusually tight deadlines. Designer LUli Cotton's 
enthusiasm for the subject of this exhibition and catalogue is evident in this vol- 
ume; she has provided a handsome and engaging context tor the works presented. 

The publication of this catalogue would not have been possible with- 
out the support of Lloyd Cotsen, whose interest and generosity are greatly 
appreciated by all those involved in the arts and education. Finally, I wish to 
thank my son, Robert, who provided the original inspiration for my exploration 
of this subject and who remains a constant reminder ot its importance. 



Introduction 

and 

Acknowledgments 



Cynthia Burlingham, Associate Director and Senior Curator 
Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts 




Fig. 1 Anonymous artist, Orbis Semualium Ptctus 
(The visible world in pictures), by John Amos 
Comenius, 1659 (cat. no. 5). 



Picturing Childhood 

The Evolution of the Illustrated Children's Book 



Cynthia Burlingham 




Fig. 2 Walter Crane, illustration from The Alphabet 
ofOUFrlendi, 1874 (cat. no. 69). 




hildrcn's literature emerged as a distiiut and iiulepeiident genre only 
a little more than two centuries ago. Prior to the mid-eighteenth cen- 
tury books were rarely created specifically tor children, and children's 
reading was generally confined to literature intended tor their educa- 
tion and moral edification rather than tor their amusement. Religious works (see 
cat. nos. 7, 8, 14), grammar books, and "courtesy books" (which offered instruction 
on proper behavior) were virtually the only early books directed at children. In these 
books illustration played a relatively minor role, usually consisting of small wood- 
cut vignettes or engraved frontispieces created by anonymous illustrators. 

Still, some exceptional works were published in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, which served as precedents for later genres of children's Hterature. 
An early example of a book devoted to children's games is the 1657 Lesjeux et 
plaisirs de Venfamc (The games and pleasures of childhood; fig. 4, cat. no. 4). Pro- 
duced for and dedicated to children, it is notable not only tor its subject but also 
for its numerous engravings after artist Jacques Stella. Still, the unnatural attitudes 
of the children's bodies are indicative of the contemporary conception of children 
as miniature adults.' 

Another important precursor was John Amos Comenius's Orbh Sensiia!- 
ium Piaiis (The visible world in pictures, 1658). An encyclopedic assemblage of 
captioned illustrations of the natural world, it is regarded as the first picture book 
for children. Comenius was an educational reformer, and his book was also inno- 
vative in its recognition that there are fiindamental differences between children 
and adults. A forerunner of the illustrated schoolbook, it remained popular in 
Europe for two centuries and was published in numerous languages and editions 
(see fig. 1; cat. nos. 5, 6, 11, 13). 

Alphabet books exemphty one of the earhest uses of pictures in instruc- 
tional books for children (see fig. 2; cat. nos. 33-77). From the sixteenth until well 
into the eighteenth century children learned their alphabets by studying horn- 
books (see cat. nos. 33, 38, 39, 50), wooden paddles with inscribed alphabets that 
were often combined with religious writings such as the Lord's Prayer. Out ot the 
hornbook tradition developed the more pictorial battledore (see cat. nos. 41, 45, 
47, 54, 56, 58, 59), a folded piece of cardboard with an illustrated alphabet, named 
after a traditional game in which hornbooks were used as paddles. The battledore 
endured until the mid-nineteenth century. By the early nineteenth century other 
types of games with illustrations were developed tor teaching ABCs as well as math, 
grammar, and science (see fig. 3). 




Establishing 
Traditions 



Fig. 3 Alphabet of carved leners in can'ed ivon,' 
box, c. 1800 (cat. no. 35). 



13 



One ot the most enduring genres oi fiction, fables (see cat. nos. 15-32) 
were initiaUy read in Latin in the classroom rather than for amusement at home. 
The stories attributed to Aesop (supposedly a Greek storyteller of the sixth cen- 
tury B.C. but almost certainly a legendary figure) were among the most frequently 
published and illustrated (see figs. 5, b). Aesop's Fables -wis published in its first Eng- 
lish translation by William Caxton (c. 1422-91) in 1484. It soon became one of 
the most popular illustrated books for children, though in many early editions there 
was little attempt to adapt the stories to make them easier for children to under- 
stand and relate to.^ 



Checklist of the Exhibition 

Unless otherwise noted, works are from the 
collection of the Department of Special 
Collections at the University Research Library, 
UCLA. Measurements are given in inches and 
centimeters; for books, height is given; for 
drawings and three-dimensional objects, 
measurements are given in the following order: 
height, width, depth. 



Establishing Traditions 




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A. I'aif' Uttt'j Soitl'tv.tiitttJ hotifftmj l^eitrs corps est pourtiint hien drrjse 

^ttt ne Jinitf tjiif ces Poiipotu St, Seioit uui Jit Pvthinfoiv , 

aurouni tfon hcsotn d'^iiehore , ['iiofnint est X'ti arhrt rtrtrtrs/ 

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Fig. 4 Jacques Stella, illustration from Lc-s jeux et 
ptahirs de I'eTifame (The games and pleasures of 
childhood), 1657 (cat. no. 4). 



Anonymous artist 

De Modo Co//egiandi, by Federicus 

Chrysogonus, 1528 

Published by Giovanni Antonio Nicolini da 

Sabbio, Venice 

12 in. (30.5 cm) 



Anonymous artist 

The Elements of Geometric, by Euclid, 1570 

Published bv L Daye, London 

13 in. (33 cm) 

Collection of the William Andrews Clark 

Memorial Librarv, UCLA 



Anonymous artist 

Cosmographta, by Petrus Apianus, 1584 
Published by Joannes Bellerum, Antwerp 
10 in. (25.4 cm) 



Jacques SteUa (French, 1596-1657) 

Lesjeux etplaisin de Venfance (The games and 

pleasures of childhood), 1657 

Published by Galleries du Louvtc, Paris 

8'/4 in. (21 cm) 

Fig. 4 



Anonymous artist 

Orbh Sensuahum Pktus (The visible world in 

pictures), by John Amos Comenius, 1659 

Published by Michael Endteri, Nuremberg 

6'/4 in. (15.9 cm) 

Fig.l 



Anonymous artist 

Orbis Sensualium Picttis (The visible world in 

pictures), by John Amos Comenius, 1672 

Published by T. R. for S. Mearne, London 

6V4 in. (15.9 cm) 

Collection of the William Andrews Clark 

Memorial Llbrar\-, UCLA 



14 



Anonymous artist 

Pilgrim's Progress, by John Bunyan, 1685 

Published by Nathaniel Ponder, London 

6 in. (15.2 cm) 

Collection of the William ^Ajidrews Clark 

Memorial Librarv, L^CLA 



Anonymous artist 

TheBihU: 1721 

Published by Thomas Hive, London 

2'/4 in. (6.4 cm) 



17 

John Bickham 

Fiihln iind Other Short Poems. 1731 
Published by Thomas Cobb, London 
8 in. (20..3 cm) 



Anonymous artist 

/ItAii Minimus, bv James Gibson, 175S 
Published by John Newbery, London 
A% in. (12 cm) 

10 

Anonymous artist 

A View of the Earth, by the Reverend Mr. 

Turner, 1766 

Published by S. Crowder, London 

12'/4in. (31.1 cm) 

11 

Anonymous artist 

Neuer Orhis Pic/us (The new world in pictures), 

by John Amos Comenius, 1785 

Published by Georg Emanuel Beer, Leipzig 

8V2 in. (21.6 cm) 

12 

Anonymous artist 

TheHerschel Weather Table, c. 1800 

5W in. (14 cm) 

13 

Anonymous artist 

Orhis Sensualium Pictus (The visible world in 
pictures), by John Amos Comenius, 1810 
Published byT. and J. Swords, New York 
6% in. (17.1cm) 

14 

Anonymous artist 

The Chilcfs Bible, \%3,4 

Published by Truman, Smith and Co., 

Cincinnati 

21/4 in. (5.7 cm) 



Fables 

15 

Anonymous artist 

Fabulae Centum, by Gabriel Faernus, 1564 

Published by Vincenzo Luchino, Rome 

VA in. (22.2 cm) 

Fig. 5 

16 

Francis Barlow (British, 1626?-1704) 
Les fables d'Esope (Aesop's fables), 1714 
Published by Etienne Roger, Amsterdam 
10 in. (25.4 cm) 

Collection of the William Andrews Clark 
Memorial Library, UCLA 



18 

Anonymous artist 

Le «.™,v/ (Reynard the fox), 1739 

PubUshcd by Jacques Panneels and Charles de 

Vos, Brussels 

8 in. (20.3 cm) 

19 

Samuel Croxall (British, d. 1752) 
Fables of Aesop, 1782 
Published by W. Strahan et al., London 
6% in. (17.1 cm) 

20 

Anonymous artist (after Francis Barlow, 

1626?-1704) 

Les fables d'Esope (Aesop's fables), 2 vols., 1801 

Published by Henri Tardieu, Paris 

5 in. (12.7 cm) 

21 

Anonymous artist 

Fables Ancient and Modern, 2 vols., by Edward 

Baldwm, 1805 

PubHshed by Thomas Hodgkins, London 

6y4 in. (15.9 cm) 

22 

Thomas Bewick (British, 1753-1828) 
The Fables of Aesop, 1818 
Published by E. Walker, Newcastle 
10>4 in. (26 cm) 

23 

J.J. Grandville (French, 1803-47) 

Wood engraving block for The Eagle, the Sow, 

and the Cat, trom The Fables of La Fontaine, 

1838 

3'/2 X 4y4 X 1 m. (8.9 X 10.8 x 2.5 cm) 

24 

Anonymous artist 

Revnard the Fox, 1840 

PubHshed by Joseph Cund^dl, London 

43/4 in. (12 cm) 

25 

John Tenniel (Bridsh, 1820-1914) 

Aesop's Fables, 1848 

Published by John Murray, London 

8'/2 in. (21.6 cm) 

26 

Ernest Griset (French, 1844-1907) 
Aesop's Fables, 1876 
Published by Lothrop, Boston 
9'/2 in. (24.1 cm) 





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Fig. 5 .Anon\-mous artist, illustration from Fabulae 
Centum, by Gabriel Faernus, 1564 (cat. no. 15). 

Fig. 6 Stephen Gooden, illustration trom Aesop's 
Fables. 1936 (cat. no. 31). 



15 



27 

Alexander Calder (American, 1898-1976) 

Fiihles of Aesop, according to Sir Roger 

L'Estrange, 1931 

Published by Harrison, Paris; Minton, Balch 

and Co., New York 

10'/4 in. (26 cm) 

28 

Stephen Gooden (British, 1892-1955) 
The Fabki of La Fontaine, vol. 2, 1931 
Published by William Heinemann, London; 
Random House, New Yorlc 
10'/2 in. (26.7 cm) 

29 

Stephen Gooden (British. 1892-1955) 

Wolf and KUi, itom Aesofi Fables, 1936 

Engraving 

Published by George C. Harrap, London 

6'/4x4'/2in.(15.9xll.4cm) 

30 

Stephen Gooden (British, 1892-1955) 

A City and Country Mouse, from Aesop's Fables, 

1936 

Engraving 

Published by George C. Harrap, London 

6V4x4V2 in. (15.9x11.4 cm) 

31 

Stephen Gooden (British. 1892-1955) 

Aesop's Fables, 1936 

Published by George C. Harrap, London 

10»/^ in. (26.7 cm) 

Fig. 6 

32 

Antonio Fr.\sconi (American, b. 1919) 

Twelve Fables of Aesop, bv Glenwav Wescott, 

1954 

Published by the Museum of Modern .Art, 

New York 

8W in. (21.6 cm) 



Alphabet Books 



33 

Hornbook. English, c. 1796 

Wood 

bV4 in. (15.9 cm) 

34 

ABC blocks, nineteenth century 

Box: 7>4 X \OVi x 2^/i in. (18.4 x 26 x 6.3 cm) 

Blocks: l'/2 x 11/2 X iy2 in. (3.8 x 3.8 x 3.8 cm) each 

35 

Alphabet ot carved letters in carved ivory box, 

English, c. 1800 

Ivory 

Box: 2y4 X 4 X 1 '4 in. (7 x 10.2 x 4.4 cm) 

Letters: ^2 x '/2 in. (1.3 x 1.3 cm) each (approx.) 

Fig. 3 



36 

Alphabet of carved letters in Chinese lacquer 
box, English, c. 1800 
Ivory (some letters painted red and green) 
Box: h: 1% in. (4.4 cm); diam: 3 in. (7.6 cm) 
Letters: Vt x Vt in. (1.9 x 1.9 cm) each (approx.) 

37 

Cards for teaching grammar, in Japanese 

lacquer wooden box, c. 1800 

Box: h: VA in. (8.3 cm); diam: 3Vi in. (8.9 cm) 

Cards: diam: 2 in. (5.1 cm) each 

38 

Hornbook. EngUsh, c. 1800 

Wood 

4i6 in. (11.4 cm) 

39 

Hornbook, English, c. 1800 

Wood 

4Vi in. (11.4 cm) 

40 

Movable alphabet, c. 1800 

Wood 

H: 8 in. (20.3 cm); diam: VA in. (3.2 cm) 

41 

Anonymous artist 

Battledore, early nineteenth century 

6 in. (15.2 cm) 

42 

Anonymous artist 

The Favorite Alphabet for the Nursery, 

nineteenth century 

Published by Yates, London 

11 in. (27.9 cm) 

43 

Anonymous artist 

My Darlings ABC, 1800 

3V4 in. (8.9 cm) 

44 

Anonymous artist 

People of All Nations: A Useful Toy for Girl or 

Boy, 1800 

Published by Darton and Har\'ev'. London 

2 in. (5.1 cm) 

45 

Anonymous artist 

The Royal Battledore, 1800 

Published by R. Elliott, Hereford 

5'/4 in. (13.3 cm) (8'/4 in. [21 cm] extended) 

46 

Anonymous artist 

The Tragical Death of an Apple Pie, 1800 

Published in London 

31^ in. (8.9 cm) 



47 

Anonymous artist 

Battledore, 1807 

Pubhshed by W. &.T. Darton, London 

6'/4 in. (15.9 cm) 

48 

Anonymous artist 

Presents for the Nursery, 1811 

Published by John Marshall, London 

6y4 in. (17.1cm) 

49 

Alphabet pieces in wooden box, English, 

c. 1820 

Ivory 

Box: 7 X ll'/4 X VA in. (17.8 x 28.6 x 4.4 cm) 

Pieces: % x Vi in. (1.9 x 1.3 cm) each 

50 

Hornbook, American, c. 1825 

Wood 

12 in. (30.5 cm) 

51 

Picture Alphabet, c. 1820 

Box: h: 3V4 in. (8.9 cm); diam: iVi in. (8.9 cm) 

Cards: diam: 2 in. (5.1 cm) each 

52 

Picture Alphabet for a Good Child, c. 1820 
Box: h: 3y4 in. (8.3 cm); diam: 3V4 in. (8.9 cm) 
Cards: diam: 2 in. (5.1 cm) each 

53 

Anonymous artist 
The Young Child's A, B, C, 1820 
Published by Samuel Wood and Sons, 
New York 

4 in. (10.2 cm) 

54 

Anonymous artist 

The Universal Battledore for Children, 1822 

Published by J. & H. Bailey, London 

5 X 8'/i in. (12.7 x 21.0 cm) (extended) 

55 

Anonymous artist 

The Good Child's A, B, C Book, 1830 

Pubhshed by Mahlon Day, New York 

4V4 in. (10.8 cm) 

56 

Anonymous artist 
The Infant's Battledore, 1830 
Published bv S. Moore, Castle Cary 
5 X 8 in. (12.7 x 20.3 cm) (extended) 

57 

Pictorial Primer on Wooden Blocks, 1830 
Pubhshed by V. S. W. Parkhurst, Providence 
Box: 6Vi X 8y4 X 2% in. (16.5 x 22.2 x 7 cm) 
Blocks: 2y4 x 3y4 x y4 in. (7 x 9.5 x 1.9 cm) each 



16 



58 

Anonymous artist 
Richardsom New Battledon; 1830 
Published by Thomas Richardson, Derby 
5% X 9 in. (14.6 x 22.9 cm) (extended) 

59 

Anonymous artist 
RichiirJson'i New Battledore. 1830 
Pubhshed by Thomas Richardson, Derby 
SV* X 9 in. (14.6 x 22.9 cm) (extended) 

60 

Anonymous artist 

Marki'i Htitory of an Apple Pie, 1835 

Published by J. L. Marks, London 

6^/4 in. (17.1cm) 

61 

George Cruikshank (British, 1792-1878) 

A Comu Alphabet, 1836 

Published by George Cruikshank, Pentonville, 

England 

Sin. (12.7 cm) 

Richard Vbgler Cruikshank Collection, Grun- 

wald Center for the Graphic Arts, UCLA 



68 

Anonymous artist 

Great Rig ABC, 1870 

Published by McLoughhn Bros., New York 

7'/4 in. (18.4 cm) 

69 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-191.S) 
The Alphabet ofOldFrtendi, 1874 
Published by George Routledge and Sons, 
London and New York 
10'/2 in. (26.7 cm) 
Fig. 2 

70 

Kate Greenaway (British, 1846-1901) 

A Apple Pie, 1886 

Published by Frederick Warne, London and 

New York 

8'/2 in. (21.6 cm) 

71 

Kate Greenaway (British, 1846-1901) 

A Apple Pie, 1886 

Published by George Routledge, London 

8V2 in. (21.6 cm) 



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Fig. 7 William Nicholson, illustration from An Alphabet, 
1898 (cat. no. 73). 



62 

Anonymous artist 

Panoramic Alphabet, 1840 

Published by Webb and Millington, Leeds 

6V4 in. (15.9 cm) 



72 

Anonymous artist 

ABC of Objects for Home and School, 1895 

Published by McLoughlin Bros., New York 

12y4 in. (31.1cm) 



63 

Anonymous artist 

Grandmama Goodsoul's Fruit and Flower 

Alphabet, 1847 

Pubhshed by Read and Co., London 

lO'A in. (27.3 cm) 

64 

George W. Terrv 

The Alphabet Annotated, 1853 

Published by Ackermann and Co., London 

13 in. (33 cm) 

65 

Anonymous artist 
The Royal Picture Alphabet, 1854 
Published by Ward and Lock, London 
7;^ in. (19 cm) 

66 

Anonymous artist 

Good Child i ABC and Picture Book, 1 860 
Pubhshed by O. Onken, Saint Louis 
5% in. (14.6 cm) 

67 

Anonymous artist 

My Fmt Alphabet. 1865 

Published by George Routledge and Sons, 

London and New York 

71/4 in. (18.4 cm) 



73 

Wilham Nicholson (British, 1872-1949) 

An Alphabet. 1898 

Book with fwenty-six hand-colored woodcuts 

Published by William Heinemann, London 

16 in. (40.6 cm) 

Fig. 7 

74 

Anonymous artist 

My Tmy Alphabet Book. 1900 

Published by David Bryce and Son, Glasgow 

l'/4 in. (3.2 cm) 

75 

Henry Mayer (b. 1868) 

Little People: An Alphabet, by T W. H. 

Crosland, 1902 

Published by Grant Richards, London 

5 in. (12.7 cm) 

76 

Edmund Dulac (French, 1882-1953) 

Lyrics Pathetic and Humorous from A to Z, 1906 

Published bv Frederick Warne, London 

10% in. (27.3 cm) 

77 

Anonymous artist 

The Daily Express ABC. 1933 

Published in England 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 



17 




Fig. 8 Anonymous artist, illustration from 
The ChUd\ Fairy Uhrary, 1837 (cat. no. 163). 




cw attitudes toward children and their education began to deveioji in 
the late seventeenth century, when many educators appealed for greater 
consideration of children's distinctive needs and when the notion of 
pleasure in learning was becoming more widely accepted. ' Most indica- 
tive of this evolution of ideas are the writings of philosophers John Locke (1632-1704) 
and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78). In 1693 Locke wrote in Some Thoughts Con- 
cerning Education that "children should be treated as rational creatures. . . . They 
must not be hindered from being children, nor from playing and doing as children, 
but from doing ill. "^Rousseau regarded childhood as a pure and natural state — one 
distinct from adulthood — and believed that a central goal of education should be 
to preserve the child's original nature. He also believed that it was essential for 
teachers to see things as children do. ' The writings ot Locke and Rousseau influ- 
enced British educators, and their ideas ultimately led to a more humane approach 
to education in which enjoyment was considered an aid to learning. 

By the early eighteenth century interest in children's literature (and a rise 
in literacy) led to new markets and a flourishing ot new publishers, particularly in 
England. Innovations in typography and printing allowed greater treedom in repro- 
ducing art through engraving, woodcut, etching, and aquatint, although illustra- 
tors were still largely anonymous and illustrations confined to frontispieces. 

Thomas Boreman was one of the first entrepreneurs to respond to the 
market with his miniature books entitled Gigantick Histories (1740-43; see cat. no. 
79) as well as other illustrated books on subjects such as natural history (see fig. 9). 
The most important of the early publishers was John Newbery (1713-67). Newbery 
ran his London bookshop from 1745 to 1767, publishing vast quantities ot children's 
literature of all types as well as a wide range ot books on reading, philosophy, and 
science, most covered in flowered and gilt Dutch paper and enlivened by simple 
woodcut illustrations." His first children's book was A Little Pretty Pocket Book 
(1744), and one of the most popular was his 1765 History of Little Goody Two Shoes 
(see fig. 10; cat. nos. 82, 105, 131), regarded as the first novel written specifically tor 
children (it is said to have been written for Newbery by Oliver Goldsmith).' 

Other enterprising London publishers who succeeded Newbery were John 
Harris and John Marshall. In 1807 Harris published the innovative Butterfly's Ball 
and the Grasshopper's FeasthyY^WYxAm Roscoe (cat. no. 108), a nonsensical rhymed 
tale of insects in the woods, which offered pure fantasy unadulterated by moral 
lessons. Harris continued to publish more standard didactic works as well as tairy 
tales and nursery rhymes. Marshall's books were published in a variety ot torms, 
including the first infant's libraries, boxed miniature libraries (see cat. nos. 92-94; 
iU. p. 6), as well as infant's cabinets, decorated bo.xes containing small books and 
pictures (see cat. nos. 96-98, 100). Children's literature at this time ranged trom 
these more expensive editions to the widely published chapbooks, inexpensive 
pamphlets distributed by peddlers throughout the countryside. 

The two most significant genres of eighteenth-century children's litera- 
ture were the fairy tale and the moral tale. Fairy tales, which had been passed down 
from generation to generation through oral tradition, were first collected and put 
into print at the French court of Louis XIV by writers such as the Countess d'Aulnoy 
(see cat. nos. 145, 149), Madame de Villeneuve, and Madame Le Prince de Beau- 
mont. Charles Perrault's 1697 Histoires on contes du temps passe {Tales of long ago; 
see cat. nos. 144, 146-48, 150, 192) contain the first written versions of "Cin- 
derella," "Sleeping Beauty," "Red Riding Hood," "Blue Beard," "Hop o' My Thumb," 
and "Puss in Boots."' Perrault's versions of these stories have dominated EngUsh 
and American children's Uterature since the eighteenth century (see inside front 
cover). The frontispiece of his original edition (fig. 11) pictured an old woman 
telling stories to a group of children, with the inscription Contes de ma mere I'oye 
("Tales of mother goose," a French folk expression roughly equivalent to "old v\dves' 



Publishing for 
Children 



19 




^('^■■33. Ske Ma/t- . 



V\^. 9 Anonymous artist, illustration from 
A DeiCnjHwn of a Great Variety ofAnimah and 
Ve^etahki. 1736 (cat. no. 78). 




Fig. 10 Anonymous artist, illustration from 
The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes, 1768 
(cat. no. 82). 



tales"). This was the first appearance ot the character who would later be associ- 
ated with nursery rhymes when the Newbery firm attached the name to a collec- 
tion published under the title Mother Goose's Melody; oi; Sonnets for ihe Cradle (1781; 
cat. no. 154). 

Fairy tales, as weU as popular adventure tides such as Daniel Defoe's Robin- 
son Crusoe (1719; cat. nos. 115, 121), often engendered criticism in the eighteenth 
and early nineteenth centuries. Sarah Trimmer (1741-1810), a noted author of 
moral lesson books, denounced "imaginary beings tor children" in her 1773 review 
oi Mother Bunch's Fairy Tales.' Indeed, though numerous chapbook editions of 
Perrault were published throughout the eighteenth century, they were generally 
overshadowed by more didactic books that dealt with issues ot morality or rehgion. 
It was not until well into the nineteenth century that tairy tales came to dominate 
the children's book market. 

Moral or cautionary tales, in which good children were rewarded and bad 
children were appropriately punished, were generally of less interest with regard to 
illustrations than were fairy tales. Many were religious tracts written under the 
influence of Anglican Evangelicals, and they were published in great number 
throughout the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, by firms such as Newbery 
and Marshall. The proliferation of editions of such books as Isaac Watts's Divine 
Songs (1715; see cat. no. 213) testifies to the enduring popularity ot works that put 
religious lessons into a more enjoyable torm. Among the most notable women 
authors of devotional literature or moral tales in England were Trimmer, Anna 
Laetitia Barbauld (1743-1825), and Mary Martha Sherwood (1775-1851). 



Fig. 1 1 Anonymous artist, illustration from 
Histoires ou (ontes du temps passe (Tales of long 
ago), by Charles Perrault, 1698 (cat. no. 144). 

Fig. 12 Anonymous artist, illustration from The 
Picture Gallery i or, Peter Prim's Portraits of Good and 
Bad Girls and Boys. 1814 (cat. no. 205). 




Goodnatiired George 




Here Georg'e a Youth, of happy xui&n. 
In domg" g'ood IS active seen. 
As soon as Davy reaches land. 
His nets to spread. Ixe lends a hand . 



:! 



21 



Publishing for Children 

78 

Anonymous artist 

A Description of a Great Variety of Animals anil 

Vegetables, 1736 

Published by Thomas Boreman, London 

6'/4 in. (16.5 cm) 

Fig. 9 

79 

Anonymous artist 

The Gigantici Histories. 10 vols., 1741-43 
Published by Thomas Boreman, London 
2'/^ in. (6.4 cm) each 

80 

"The Ludford Box," 1743-81 

Box covered in Dutch paper 

A collection ot 16 volumes once thought to 

have been the juvenile Ubrary of John and 

Elizabeth Juliana Ludford 

81 

Anonymous artist 

A Collection of Pretty Poems for the Amusement of 

Children Three Foot High, by Tommy Tagg, 

1768 

Published in London 

4Vi in. (10.8 cm) 

82 

Anonymous artist 

The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes, 1768 

Published by Newbery and Carnan, London 

4 in. (10.2 cm) 

Fig. 10 

83 

Anon\'mous artist 

The Adventures of Nobody, by Somebody, 1773 

Published by H. Roberts, London 

4 in. (10.2 cm) 

84 

Anonymous artist 

The Curious Adventures of a Little White Mouse, 

1780 

PubUshed in London 

41/4 in. (10.8 cm) 

85 

Anonymous artist 

The Death and Burial of Cock Robin, 1 780 

Published by M. Morgan, Lichfield, and 

A. Morgan, Stafford 

17'/2 X 12% in. (44.5 x 32.4 cm) (uncut sheet) 

86 

Anonymous artist 

The Adventures of Captain Gulliver, by Jonathan 

Swift, 1785 

PubUshed by P Osborne and T. Griffith, 

London 

4'/4 in. (10.8 cm) 



87 

Anonymous artist 

A Description of Animals, 1786 

Published by J. F. and C. Rivington et al., 

London 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 

88 

Anonymous artist 

A Choice Collection of Riddles, Charades, Rebusses, 

by Peter Puzzlewell, 1794 

Published by E. Newbery, London 

5'/4 in. (13.3 cm) 

89 

Anonymous artist 

The Children's Cabinet: or, A Key to Natural 

History. 1798 

Published by Laurie and Whittle, London 

4V4 in. (10.8 cm) 

90 

Anonymous artist 

Wood engraving blocks, nineteenth century 

2V2 X 2 X 1 in. (6.4 x 5.1 x 2.5 cm) each 

(approx.) 

91 

Anonymous artist 

Gullivei — a Miraculous Voyage to Lilliput, 1800 
Pubhshed by SchaUer and Kirn, Furth, Bavaria 
\Q% in. (26.7 cm) 

92 

Infant's Library, 1800 
Wood box containing thirteen volumes 
Pubhshed by John Marshall, London 
6'/2 xV/2X 2'/i in. (16.5 x 8.9 x 6.4 cm) 

93 

Infant's Library, 1800 
Wood box containing seventeen \'olumes 
Published by John Marshall, London 
6Vz X 3'/2 X 2'/2 in. (16.5 x 8.9 x 6.4 cm) 

94 

Infant's Library, 1800 
Wood box containing sixteen volumes 
Pubhshed by John Marshall, London 
13 X 8V2 x 5V2 in. (33 x 21 x 14 cm) 

95 

The Story of Aladdin, c. 1800 

Box containing twelve hand-colored engravings 

mounted on cardboard 

Box: 2% x 2% x V/i in. (7 x 7 x 3.8 cm) 

Cards: 2Vi x2Vi in. (5.7 x 5.7 cm) each 

96 

The Infant's Cabinet of Fishes, 1801 

Wood box containing hand-colored engravings 

Published by John Marshall, London 

31/2 X 2V2 X VA. in. (8.9 x 6.3 x 3.8 cm) 



97 

The Infant's Cabinet of Flowers, 1801 

Wood box containing hand-colored engravings 

Published by John Marshall, London 

S'/tx 2W x V/2 in. (8.9 x 6.3 x 3.8 cm) 

98 

The Infant's Cabinet of Various Objects, 1801 
Wood box containing hand-colored engravings 
PubUshed by John MarshaU, London 
3 W X 2V4 X IW in. (8.9 x 6.3 x 3.8 cm) 

99 

Anonymous artist 

Youthful Recreations, 1801 

PubUshed by W. Darton and J. Harvey, 

London 

3'/4 in. (8.3 cm) 

100 

The Infant's Cabinet of Shells, 1802 

Wood box containing hand-colored engra\'ings 

PubUshed by John Marshall, London 

3 Vi x 2'/^ X iy2 in. (8.9 X 6.3 X 3.8 cm) 

101 

Anonymous artist 

The Cabinet of Instruction and Amusement, 1803 

PubUshed by John Fairburn, London 

4 in. (10.2 cm) 

102 

Anonymous artist 

Aladdin; or, the Wonderful Lamp: A Tale for the 

Nursery. 1805 

PubUshed by Tabart, London 

5 in. (12.7 cm) 

103 

Anonymous artist 

The Honours of the Table; or. Rules for Behaving 

during Meals, with the Whole Art of Carving, 

1805 

PubUshed by Gye and Son, Bath 

6% in. (17.1 cm) 

104 

Anonvmous artist 

lUustrations for The Happy Courtship, Merry 

Marriage and Picnic Dinner of Cock Robin and 

Jenny Wren: to Which Is Added, Alas! the Doleful 

Death of the Bridegroom, c. 1806 

Nine ink and wash drawings 

For book pubUshed by John Harris, London 

2y2 X 3V4 in. (6.4 x 8.9 cm) each (approx.) 

105 

Anonymous artist 

The History of Goody Two-Shoes, 1806 
PubUshed by Darton and Har\ey, London 
4'/i in. (11.4 cm) 



22 



106 

Anonymous artist 

The Elepbant'i Bull ami GranJ Fete Chtitnpetre, 

1807 

Published by John H^irris, London 

45/4 in. (12 cm) 

107 

Anonymous artist 

The WorU Turned UpsiJe Down, 1807 

Published in England 

5 in. (12.7 cm) 

108 

William Mulready (Irish, 1786-1863) 

The Butterfly's Ball and the Grasshopper's Feast. 

byWilliamRoscoe, 1807 

Published by John Harris, London 

4'/4 in. (12 cm) 

109 

William Blake (British, 1757-1827), after 

William Mulread)- 

Tales from Shakespear, vol. 1, by Charles and 

Mary Lamb, 1807 

Published by Thomas Hodgkins, London 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 

110 

Anonymous artist 
The Horse's Levee. 1808 
Published by John Harris, London 
Sin. (12.7 cm) 

111 

Anonymous artist 
The Lion's Masquerade. 1808 
Published by John Harris, London 
Sin. (12.7 cm) 

112 

Anonymous artist 
The Twelve Labors of Hercules, 1808 
Published by Didier and Tebbett, London 
5 in. (12.7 cm) 

113 

Anonymous artist 

Peter Prim's Pride; or, Proverbs That Will Suit the 

Young and the Old. 1810 

Published by John Harris, London 

5 in. (12.7 cm) 

114 

Anonymous artist 
M Baha; or. The Forty Thieves. 1813 
Published by J. Catnach, London 
S'/4 in. (13.3 cm) 

115 

Anonymous artist 

The Family Robinson Crusoe, vol. 1, by M. Wiss, 

1814 

Published by M.J. Godwin, London 

63/4 in. (17.1cm) 



116 

Anonymous artist 
A Natural History of Fishes, 1815 
Published by W. Davison, Alnwick 
5'/2in. (t4cm) 

117 

Anonymous artist 

A Natural History of Reptiles, Serpents, and 

Insects. 1815 

Published by W. Davison, Alnwick 

5'/2in. (14 cm) 

118 

Anonymous artist 

A Natural History of Water Birds. 1815 
Published by W. Davison, Alnwick 
S'/jin. (14 cm) 

119 

Anonymous artist 

Gulliver's Travels, by Jonathan Switt, 1815 

Published by J. Walker, London 

51/4 m. (13.3 cm) 

120 

Anonymous artist 

Dame Truelove's Tales: Useful Lessons for Little 

Misses and Masters, 1817 

Published by John Harris, London 

S'/4 in. (13.3 cm) 

121 

Anonymous artist 
New Robinson Crusoe. 1818 
Published by J. J. Stockdale, London 
71/2 in. (19 cm) 

122 

Anonymous artist 

British, Foreign, and Youthful Sports, 1 820 

Published by W. Belch, London 

6'/4 in. (15.9 cm) 

123 

Anonymous artist 

The Paths of Learning Strewed with Flowers, 

1820 

Published by John Harris, London 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 

124 

Anonymous artist 

The New Cries of London, by J. Bishop, 1824 
Published by A. K. Newman, London 
5V2in. (14 cm) 

125 

Anonymous artist 

Punctuation Personified, by Mr. Stops, 1824 

Published by John Harris, London 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 



126 

Anonymous artist 

Tommy Trip's Museum; or. a Peep at the Feathered 

Creation. 1824 

Published by John Harris, London 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 

127 

William Grimaldi (British, 1751-1830) 
A Suit of Armour for Youth. 1824 
Published by R. Ackcrmann, London 
7 in. (17.8 cm) 

128 

Anonymous artist 
A Peep at the Esquimaux. 1825 
Published by H. R.Thomas, London 
7 in. (17.8 cm) 

129 

Anonymous artist 

The Butterfly's Ball and the Grasshopper's Feast, 

byWilliamRoscoe, 1825 

Published by S. King, New York 

5 in. (12.7 cm) 

130 

Anonymous artist 

The Infant's Grammar. 1827 

Published by John Harris, London 

7V4 in. (18.4 cm) 

131 

Anonymous artist 

The History of Goody Two-Shoes and Her Brother 

Tommy. 1830 

Published by William Mason, London 

S'/2in. (14 cm) 

132 

Anonymous artist 

Kinder iind Jugendschriften (Writings for 

children and young people), by Joachim 

Heinrich Campe, 1830 

Published in Braunschweig 

6 in. (15.2 cm) 

133 

Anonymous artist 

The Multiplication Table in Verse, 1830 
Published by D. Car%'alho, London 
6y4 in. (17.1 cm) 

134 

Anonymous artist 

Petite galerie d'histoire naturelle (Small museum 

of natural historj'), 1830 

Published by Maulde and Renou, France 

Box: 3y4 X 2% X 1 in. (9.5 x 7 x 2.5 cm) 

Books: 3% in. (8.3 cm) each 

135 

Anonymous artist 

The History of the House That Jack Built. 1833 

Published by D. Cairalho, London 

65/4 in. (17.1cm) 

23 



136 

Anonymous artist 

Peter Parley's Visit to London, by Samuel 

Goodrich, 1836 

Published by Charles Tilt, London 

5^2 in. (14 cm) 

137 

Anonymous artist 
Whittington and His Cat, 1839 
Published by John Harris, London 
7 in. (17.8 cm) 

138 

Anonymous artist 

Sketches of Little Girls, by Solomon Lovechild, 

1845 

Published bv Thomas Dean and Co., London 

6 in. (15.2 cm) 

139 

J. B. Sonderland (German, 1805-78) 

Tales from the Eastern-Lund, by A. L. Grimm, 

1847 

Published by Joseph Cundall, London 

6Vi in. (16.5 cm) 

140 

Anonymous artist 
Sketches of Little Boys, 1851 
Published by Dean and Son, London 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 

141 

Anonymous artist 

Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp, 1852 
Published by Dean and Son, London 
lO'Ain. (26 cm) 

142 

Anonymous artist 

Gulliver's Travels, by Jonathan Swift, 1880 
Published by Thomas Nelson and Sons, 
London, Edinburgh, and New York 
llVjm. (29.2 cm) 

143 

Re.x Whistler (British, 1905-44) 

Gulliver's Travels, vol. 2, by Jonathan Switt, 

1930 

Published by the Cresset Press, London 

14W in. (36.8 cm) 



Fairy Tales 



144 

Anonymous artist 

Histoires ou contes du temps passe (Tales of long 

ago), by Charles Perrault, 1698 

Published in Paris 

5 m. (12.7 cm) 

Fig. 11 



145 

Anonymous artist 

Les contes desfees (Fairy tales), by Madame 

d'Aulnoy, 1708 

Published by Estienne Roger, Amsterdam 

5 in. (12.7 cm) 

146 

Anonymous artist 

Histoires ou contes du temps passe (Tales of long 

ago), by Charles Perrault, 1708 

Published by Jacques Desbordes, Amsterdam 

5'/4 in. (13.3 cm) 

147 

Anonymous artist 

Histoires ou contes du temps passe (Tales of long 

ago), by Charles Perrault, 1742 

Published by Jacques Desbordes, Amsterdam 

55/4 in. (14.6 cm) 

148 

Anonymous artist 

Histoires ou contes du temps passe (Td\ts of long 

ago), by Charles Perrault, 1742 

Published in The Hague 

5'/4 in. (13.3 cm) 

149 

Anonymous artist 

Queen Mah. by Madame d'Aulnoy, 1782 
Published by J. Dodsley, London 
6V4 in. (15.9 cm) 

ISO 

Anonymous artist 

Tales of Past Times, by Charles Perrault, 1798 

Published by A. Millar, W. Law, and R. Cater, 

London 

4'/i in. (11.4 cm) 

151 

An Indestructible Trouble Puzzle: Little Red 
Ridmg Hood a,id Little Bo Peep c. 1800 
Box: 10 X 7V2 X 2Vi in. (25.4 x 19 x 6.4 cm) 
Puzzle sheet: 12 x 18 in. (30.5 x 45.7 cm) 

152 

Anonymous artist 

The Comic Adventures of Old Mother Hubbard 

and Her Dog, by S. C. M., 1805 

Published by John Harris, London 

41A in. (11.4 cm) 

153 

Anonymous artist 

A Continuation of the Adventures of Old Mother 

Hubbard and Her Dog, 1806 

Published by John Harris, London 

4'^ in. (11.4 cm) 



154 

Anonymous artist 

Mother Goose's Melody; or. Sonnets for the Cradle, 

1807 

Published by John Marshall, London 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 

155 

Anonymous artist 

Songs for the Nursery, 1 808 

Published byTabart and Co., London 

5 in. (12.7 cm) 

156 

Cinderella Paper Dolls, 1814 
Published by S. and J. Fuller, London 
5% in. (14.6 cm) (approx.) 
Fig. 17 

157 

Anonymous artist 

Fairy Tales; or, the Lilliputian Library, 1817 

Published by Tabart and Co., London 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 

158 

Anonymous artist 
Cinderella, nineteenth century 
Published by McLoughlin Bros., New York 
10y4 in. (26 cm) 

159 

Anonymous artist 

Cindenlla, 1819 

Published by John Marshall, London 

35/4 in. (9.5 cm) 

160 

Anonymous artist 

Cinder ilia, 1820 

Published by J. Kendrew, York 

4 in. (10.2 cm) 

161 

Anonymous artist 

Aldiborontiphoskyphomiostikos. a Round Game 
for Merry Parties, by R. Stennet, 1825 
Published by Dean and Munday, London 
7 in. (17.8 cm) 

162 

Anonymous artist 

The Surprising Adventures of Puss in Boots, 1827 

Published by John Harris, London 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 

163 

Anon}'mous artist 

The Child's Fairy Library, 1837 

Published by Joseph Thomas, Tegg and Son, 

and Simpkin and Marshall, London 

5V2 in. (14 cm) 

Fig. 8 



24 



164 

Anonymous artist 

Puss in Boots, from Tie Child's Fairy Library, 

1837 

Published by Joseph Thomas, Tegg and Son, 

and Simpkjn and Marshall, London 

5'/2in. (14 cm) 

165 

Anonymous artist 

Cinderella, 1843 

Pubhshed by Grant and Griffith, London 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 

166 

A. H. Forrester (Alfred Crowquill, pseud.; 

British, 1804-72) 

Tom Thumb, trom Tales from the Court of 

Oberon. 1848 

Published by Grant and Griffith, London 

6V2 in. (16.5 cm) 

167 

George Cruikshank (British, 1792-1878) 

Cinderella, 1854 

Published by David Bogue, London 

63/4 in. (17.1 cm) 

168 

George Cruikshank (British, 1792-1878) 

Illustrations from Cinderella, 1854 

Six hand-colored etchings 

6% X 5 in. (17.1 X 12.7 cm) each 

Richard Vogler Cruikshank Collection, 

Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts, UCLA 

169 

George Cruikshank (British, 1792-1878) 

Illustrations irom Jack and the Beanstalk. 1854 

Three etchings 

7'/4 X 5% in. (18.4 x 14.6 cm) each 

Richard Vogler Cruikshank Collection, 

Grunwald Center tor the Graphic Arts, UCLA 

Fig. 22 

170 

Anonymous artist 

Old Mother Hubbard 1858 

Pubhshed by McLoughHn Bros., New York 

5 in. (12.7 cm) 

171 

Anonymous artist 

Old Mother Hubbard and Her Dog, trom Popular 
Nursery Tales and Rhymes, 1859 
Published by Routledge, Warne, and Rout- 
ledge, London 
7'/2in. (19 cm) 

172 

Lydia L. Very (American, 1823-1901) 

Red Riding Hood 1863 

Pubhshed by L. Prang, Boston 

63/4 in. (17.1 cm) 

Fig. 13 



173 

Lydia L. Very (American, 1823-1901) 
Red Ruling Hood 1863 
Published by L. Prang, Boston 
6^4 in. (17.1 cm) 

174 

George Cruikshank (British, 1792-1878) 

Illustrations from Puss in Boots, 1864 

Sue hand-colored etchings 

6^/4x5 in. (17.1x12.7 cm) each 

Richard Vogler Cruikshank CoDection, 

Grunwald Center tor the Graphic Arts, UCLA 

175 

Anonymous artist 

The Three Blind Mice, 1864 

Published by Dean and Son, London 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 

176 

Anonymous artist 

Cinderella, 1865 

Published by George Routledge and Sons, 

London and New York 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 

177 

Gustave Dore (French, 1832-83) 

Puss in Boots, trom Fairy Realm, by Tom Hood, 

1865 

Published by Cassell, Petter, and Galpin, 

London 

13 in. (33 cm) 

178 

W. Gunston 

Cinderella, 1865 

Pubhshed by Frederick Warne, London 

IOV4 in. (26 cm) 

179 

Harrison Weir (British, 1824-1906) 
Old Mother Hubbard and Her Dog, 1865 
Pubhshed by Frederick Warne, London 
IOV4 in. (26 cm) 

180 

Anonymous artist 

The Three Bears, from A Apple Pie and Other 

Nursery Rhymes, 1870 

Published by George Routledge and Sons, 

London and New York 

6 in. (15.2 cm) 

181 

Anonymous artist 

Three Little Pigs, 1870 

Published by McLoughlin Bros., New York 

7'/2in. (19 cm) 




Fig. 13 Lydia L. Very, Red Ruling Hood. 1863 
(cat. nos. 172-73). 



25 



182 

Anonymous artist 

Red Riding Hood, 1871 

Published by George Routledge and Sons, 

London and New York 

7V4 in. (18.4 cm) 

18.^ 

Anonymous artist 

Jack and Gill. 1872 

Published by W. P. Nimmo, Edinburgh 

5',-^ in. (14 cm) 

184 

Anonymous artist 

Tom Thumbs froni The Pla\-room Allnim for 

Children. 1876 

Published by George Routledge .md Sons, 

London and New York 

7y4m. (18.4 cm) 



185 

Waher Crane (British, 1845-1915) 

The Children's Mmical Cinderella. 1879, by 

William Routledge and Louis N. Parker 

Pubhshed by George Routledge and Sons, 

London 

93/4 in. (24.8 cm) 

186 

Anonymous artist 
Le chat hotte (Puss in boots), 1880 
Pubhshed by Edmond Schoemaeker, Paris 
101/2 in. (26.7 cm) 

187 

Anonymous artist 

Little Red Riding Hood and Cinderella, c. 1880 

Pubhshed by Dean and Son, London 

73/4 in. (19.7 cm) 




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®at[t'ijn ©Ituitiroelptttt! 



i nT n ttmi i 1 1 rrcT riTrtiTi me n^ 



Fig. 14 Heinrich Hoffmann, illustration from 
Der Srniwwelpeter, 1876 (cat. no. 214). 



188 

Anonymous artist 

Mo/her Goose, 1880 

Pubhshed by McLoughlin Bros., New York 

10'/2 in. (26.7 cm) 

189 

Anonymous artist 

Old Mother Goose, 1880 

Pubhshed by McLoughlin Bros., New York 

7'/4 in. (18.4 cm) 

190 

Anonymous artist 

The Three Bears. 1880 

Pubhshed by McLoughhn Bros., New York 

10'^ in. (26.7 cm) 

191 

Anonymous artist 

The Three Bears. 1880 

Pubhshed by McLoughhn Bros,, New York 

7'/5in. (19 cm) 

192 

Gustave Dore (French, 1832-83) 
Little Red Riding Hood, from Les contes de 
Perrault (Perrault's tales), 1880 
Pubhshed by J. Hetzel, Paris 
15% in. (40 cm) 

193 

Kate Greenaway (British, 1846-1901) 
Mother Goose. 1880 

Pubhshed by Frederick Warne, London 
bVi in. (16.5 cm) 

194 

Anonymous artist 

Cinderella. 1890 

Pubhshed by Frederick Warne, London and 

New York 

91/4 in. (23.5 cm) 

195 

.Anonymous artist 

Cinderella, 1891 

Pubhshed by McLoughlin Bros., New York 

IPA in. (29.8 cm) 

196 

Anonymous artist 

Japanese Fairy Tales. 16 vols., 1892 

Pubhshed by Griffith Farran and Co., London 

and Sydney 

6 in. (15.2 cm) 

197 

Harold B. Lentz 
The Pop-Up Mother Goose. 1933 
Pubhshed by Blue Ribbon, New York 
8% in. (21.6 cm) 



26 



Moral Tales 

198 

Anonymous artist 

The Mosaic Creation: or. Divine Wisdom Dis- 
played in the Works of the First Six Days, 1758 
Published by John Newbery, London 

4 in. (10.2 cm) 

199 

Anonymous artist 

A Token for Children, by James Janeway, 1802 

Published by M.Jones, London 

3'/! in. (8.9 cm) 

200 

Anonymous artist 

The Daisy; or, Cautionary Stones in Verse, 1808 

Published by John Harris, London 

51/4 in. (13.3 cm) 

201 

Anonymous artist 

Illustrations for The Li/v and The Two Boys, 

c. 1808 

Twelve ink and wash drawings 

For books published by John Harris, London 

2'/2 X 3'/2 in. (6.4 x 8.9 cm) each (approx.) 

202 

Anonymous artist 

TheLi/y,lSOS 

Published by John Harris, London 

51/4 in. (13.3 cm) 

203 

Anonymous artist 

The Two Boys: or. The Reward ofTruth, 1808 

Published by John Harris, London 

43/4 in. (12 cm) 

204 

Anonymous artist 

The Cowslip; or. More Caiitionarv Stories in Verse, 

1811 

Published by John Harris, London 

5V4 in. (13.3 cm) 

205 

Anonymous artist 

The Picture Gallery; or, Peter Prim's Portraits of 
Good and Bad Girls and Boys, 1814 
Published by John Harris, London 

5 in. (12.7 cm) 
Fig. 12 

206 

Anonymous artist 
Proverbs in Verse, 1814 
Pubhshed by I. Souter, London 
6V4 in. (15.9 cm) 



207 

Anonymous artist 

Right and Wrong, Exhibited in the History of 

Rosa and Agnes, 1818 

Published by John Harris, London 

5Vi in. (14 cm) 

208 

Anonymous artist 

Industry and Idleness, by Mary Belson, 1820 
Published by William Darton, London 
6 in. (15.2 cm) 

209 

Anonymous artist 

The Story-Teller, 1820 

Published by Munroe and Francis, Boston 

6 in. (15.2 cm) 

210 

Anonymous artist 

Story of Little Dick and His Playthings: Showing 

How a Naughty Boy Became a Good One, 1823 

Published by J. Lumsden, London 

5V2 m. (14 cm) 

211 

Anonymous artist 

Rhymes for Harry and His Nurse-maid, 1825 

Published by William Darton and Son, 

London 

bV4 in. (17.1 cm) 

212 

Anonymous artist 

Sunday Lessons for Little Children, by Mrs. 

Barwell, 1845 

Published by Grant and Griffith, London 

5'/4 in. (13.3 cm) 

213 

Anonymous artist 

Watts's Songs — Praises for Good, by Reverend 

Isaac Watts, 1876 

Published by McLoughlin Bros., New York 

51/2 in. (14 cm) 

214 

Heinrich Hoftmann (German, 1809-94) 

Der Struwwelpeter, 1876 

Published bv Literarische Anstalt, Riitten, and 

Loening, Frankflirt am Main 

ll'/4 in. (28.6 cm) 

Fig. 14 

215 

Heinrich Hoffmann (German, 1809-94) 
The English Struwwelpeter, 1884 
Published by A. N. Myers, London 
10 in. (25.4 cm) 



27 




Fig. 15 Lothar Meggendorter, illustration for 
Die Uhr (The clock). 1907 (cat. no. 300). 






Dvablc parts appeared in scientific books as early as the sixteenth 
century (see cat. nos. 1-3, 10), but not until the mid-eighteenth 
century were movable books conceived as entertainment for children 
or adults. The toy trade also became increasingly important as the 
children's market grew. '"The harlequinade, a type ot novelty book named after 
theatrical pantomimes featuring the harlequin in a leading role, was invented around 
1765 by London bookseller Robert Sayer (see cat. nos. 216-18, 227, 228). Composed 
of a single sheet of paper with iUustrations on flaps that open to reveal another pic- 
ture below, the harlequinade immediately became immensely popular. Also related 
to the theater were juvenile drama sheets (see fig. 16; cat. nos. 247, 248, 257, 258, 
260), printed sheets of scenery and characters out of which children created their 
own miniature theaters, the earliest ot which date to about 1810." Around the 
same time the London firm of S. and J. Fuller invented the paper doll (see fig. 17; 
cat. nos. 156, 231, 233, 236, 243). These loosely inserted cutout figures with remov- 
able heads were accompanied by stories in verse, the most famous of which was 
Litt/e Fanny (1810; cat. no. 231). FuUer was also among the earhest publishers of 
peep shows (see cat. nos. 222, 224, 225, 242, 250, 251), books that open to form a 
hinged tunnel for viewing, which were inspired by traveling peep shows. Other 
firms soon joined the scenic book trade, the most notable ot which were Dean and 
Son and the German publishers Raphael Tuck and Ernest Nister. Nister's most 
important contribution was the dissolving picture book (see cat. nos. 266, 271), in 
which the sheets were cut horizontally or into a circle so that a new scene could be 
revealed by puUing a tab. 

Games were common amusements for children in nineteenth-century 
England, including board games (see fig. 18), card games, and puzzles. Of partic- 
ular interest were geographical games, a great many of which were produced by 
members of the Wallis family, leading publishers ot children's games from 1775 
through the 1830s (see cat. nos. 219, 229, 234, 239, 244, 249). Maps also provided 
images for puzzles, the earliest of which date to the 1760s (see cat. no. 253). 

Lothar Meggendorfer (1847-1925) illustrated, designed, and engineered 
the most elaborate and intricate movable books ot the century, primarily during 
the 1880s and 1890s. Though he was also a popular magazine illustrator, his 
reputation today is based on his mechanical picture books tor children, and he is 
considered the creator of the modern movable picture book. Beginning in the late 
1880s and through the 1890s, his books enjoyed great popularity and were pub- 
lished in a variety of editions and languages. He 
produced books with movable figures operated by 
interconnected cardboard pieces sandwiched 
between sheets of paper, transformation pictures 
with interchangeable segmented parts, books with 
pop-up designs, and large unfolding books such 
as his 1899 Das Puppenhaus (The dollhouse; cat. 
no. 298). The technical wizardry of these books 
remains unequaled (see figs. 15, 19; cat. nos. 
281-300). 

World War I brought an end to the pub- 
lication of movable books and their importation 
to England from Germany, and the lack of fine 
printing facilities in England and the United States 
led to a decline in the movable book trade. The 
emergence of the pop-up book came after the 
war, however, and this simplified version ot its 
nineteenth-century predecessor has endured 
throughout this century. 



Movable and 
Pop-up Books, 
Toys, and 
Games 



Fig. 16 Anonymous artist, Pollock's Scenes in 
Cimlcn-lla. c. 1876 (cat. no. 258). 




29 




Fig. 17 CmdercUa Paper Doth, 1814 (cat. no. 156). 




Fig. 18 Anonymous artist, Royal Game of the 
Dolphin. 1821 {cat. no. 240). 



Movable and Pop-up Books, 
Toys, and Games 

216 

Anonymous artist 

Harlequin's Invasion: A New Pantomime. 1770 

Published by Robert Sayer, London 

7'/4 in. (18.4 cm) 

217 

Anonymous artist 

Harlequin Cherokee^ or. The Indian Chiefs m 

London, 1772 

Published by Robert Sayer, London 

73/4 in. (19.7 cm) 

218 

Anonymous artist 
Harlequin Skeleton, 1772 
Pubhshed by Robert Sayer, London 
6% in. (17.1cm) 

219 

Anonymous artist 

A Tour through England and Wales, 1 794 

Hand-colored engraving 

Published by Wallis, London 

20 '/4 X 2bV2 in. (51.4 x 67.3 cm) 

220 

Anonymous artist 

Pastora; or, the Shepherdess of the Pyrenees, 1796 

Hand-colored engraving 

Published by Champante and Whitrow, 

London 

IOV2X 81/4 in. (26.7x21 cm) 

221 

Africa Neatly Dissected, nineteenth century 
Pubhshed by William Darton, London 
Box: 71/4 X 71/2 X IVi in. (18.4 x 19 x 6.4 cm) 

222 

French Public Gardens or Zoo, c. 1800 

Pubhshed in France 

5Vi X 4% X 20^/4 in. (14 x 12.1 x 52.7 cm) 

(extended) 

223 

Jeu du commerce (Game of commerce), c. 1800 

Published in France 

Cards: 3 V4 x 2 in. (8.2 x 5.1 cm) each 

224 

Palace Garden Peep Show, c. 1800 
Pubhshed in Paris 

5 X 7</4 X 18'/4 in. (12.7 x 18.4 x 46.4 cm) 
(extended) 

225 

Pastoral Scene Peep Show, c. 1800 

6 X 7% X 29 in. (15.2 x 19.7 x 73.7 cm) 
(extended) 



226 

Anonymous artist 
Goody Two Shoes, 1803 
Pubhshed by T. Hughes, London 

7 in. (17.8 cm) 

227 

Anonymous artist 

A4etamorphosis; or, A Transformation of Pictures, 

by Benjamin Sands, 1807 

Pubhshed by Solomon Wigatt, Philadelphia 

5% in. (14.6 cm) 

228 

Anonymous artist 

Choice of Harlequin, or the Indian Chief, 1808 

Pubhshed by G. Martin, London 

4 in. (10.2 cm) 

229 

Anonymous artist 
Game of Mother Goose, 1808 
Hand-colored engraving 
Pubhshed by Walhs, London 
2iy4x 15 in. (55.2x38.1 cm) 

230 

Anonymous artist 
The Panorama of London, 1809 
Hand-colored engraving 
Pubhshed by John Harris, London 
21x215/4 in. (53.3x55.2 cm) 

231 

The History of Little Fanny, 1810 

Pubhshed by S. and J. Fuller, London 

H: 4V4 in. (10.8 cm) each paper doll (approx.) 

232 

Lejeu du sorcier (Sorcerer's game), 1810 

Pubhshed by Gide fils, Paris 

Cards: 4% x 3 in. (12.1 x 7.6 cm) each 

233 

Ellen; or, The Naughty Girl Reclaimed, 1811 

Pubhshed by S. and J. Fuller, London 

H: 4W in. (10.8 cm) each paper doll (approx.) 

234 

Anonymous artist 
The Mirror of Truth, 1811 
Hand-colored engraving 
Pubhshed by Walhs, London 
17 x21Vi in. (43.2x54.6 cm) 

235 

Anonymous artist 

Miss Rose, 1811 

Pubhshed by Dean and Munday, London 

8 in. (20.3 cm) 

236 

Young Albert. 1811 

Pubhshed by S. and J. Fuller, London 

H: SVi in. (14.6 cm) each paper doll (approx.) 



237 

Anonymous artist 

Grand jeu de Thistoire ancienne de la Grece (Large 

game of ancient Greek history), 1815 

Engraving 

Pubhshed by Bassett, Paris 

19 V4 X 25 '/2 in. (48.9 x 64.8 cm) 

238 

Political Figures, 1815 
Pubhshed in England 
Box: 4W X 3 X Wz in. (11.4 x 7.6 x 3.8 cm) 

239 

Anonymous artist 
Village Portraits, 1818 
Hand-colored engraving 
Pubhshed by Walhs, London 
17 x20'/4 in. (43.2x51.4 cm) 

240 

Anonymous artist 

Royal Game of the Dolphin, 1 82 1 

Hand-colored engraving 

Published by William Darton, London 

16 xl9'-4 in. (40.6x49.5 cm) 
Fig. 18 

241 

Gothic Bricks, c. niA 

Wood box with blocks 

Box: 7V4 X 9 x 3 in. (19 X 22.9 x 7.6 cm) 

242 

Areaorama of the Thames, 1827 

Pubhshed in London 

4V4 y.SVix 233/4 in. (10.8 x 14 x 60.3 cm) 

(extended) 

243 

Stephanie, 1830 

Pubhshed by G. Doyon, Paris 

H: 4% in. (12 cm) each paper doll (approx.) 

244 

Anonymous artist 

Wanderers in the Wilderness, 1830 

Hand-colored engraving 

Pubhshed by WaUis, London 

27x201.4 in. (68.6x51.4 cm) 

245 

Attributed to Robert Cruikshank (British, 

1789-1856) 

Park's New Characters, c. 1836 

Hand-colored etching 

Pubhshed by A. Park, London 

17 xl3V4m. (43.2x33.7 cm) 

246 

Captain Cook's Voyage on a Toy Globe, c. 1840-60 
Pubhshed in Germany 
Diam: 5V4 in. (14 cm) 



32 



247 

Anonymous artist 

Pollock's Characters and Scenes in Oliver Twist, 

c. 1840 

Sl\ hand-colored etchings 

Published by B. Pollock, London 

b% X 8V2 in. (17.1 X 21.6 cm) each 

248 

Anonymous artist 

Redington's Characters in Oliver Twist, c. 1840 

Two hand-colored etchings 

Published by Redington, London 

6% X 81/j in. (17.1 X 21.6 cm) each 

249 

Anonymous artist 

Game of the Star Spangled Banner, 1 842 

Hand-colored engraving 

Published by Wallis, London 

26'/4x 20^2 in. (66.7x52 cm) 

250 

The Thames Tunnel Peep Show, 1843 

Published in Germany 

7 X %V2 X 311/4 in. (17.8 x 21.6 x 79.4 cm) 

(extended) 

251 

Telescopic View of the Great Exhibition, 1851 

Published by C. Moody, London 

6V4 X 7 X 25 in. (15.9 x 17.8 x 63.5 cm) 

(extended) 

252 

Anonymous artist 

Astronomical and Geographical Diagrams, by 

John Emshe, 1852 

Published by James Reynolds, London 

12 in. (30.5 cm) 

253 

Anonymous artist 

Geographical Fun, by William Harvev, 1868 

Published by Hodder and Stoughton, London 

11 in. (27.9 cm) 



257 

Anonymous artist 

Pollock's Characters in Cinderella, c. 1876 

Four hand-colored etchings 

Published by B. Pollock, London 

6y4 X 8'/2 in. (17.1 x 21.6 cm) each 

258 

Anonymous artist 

Pollock's Scenes in Cinderella, c. 1876 

Sbc hand-colored etchings 

Published by B. Pollock, London 

10% x 123/4 in. (26 X 32.4 cm) each 

Fig. 16 

259 

Chiromagica, c. 1880 

Published by McLoughUn Bros., New York 

Box: 115/4 X ll'/4 X 21/2 in. (29.8 x 29.8 x 6.3 cm) 

260 

Toy theater with scenes from Oliver Twist, 

c. 1870-80 

Painted wood with hand-colored prints 

mounted on cardboard 

171/2 X 14>/2 X 18 in. (44.5 x 36.8 x 45.7 cm) 

261 

Th. V. Pichler 

Grosse Menagerie (Large menagerie), 1882 
Published by Verlag von Moriz Perles, Vienna 
121/2 in. (31.8 cm) 

262 

Anonymous artist 

The Surprise Circus, c. 1885 

Published by Frederick Warne, London and 

New York 

71/4 in. (18.4 cm) 

263 

Anonymous artist 

Father Tuck's Land of Toys, 1890 

PubHshed by Raphael Tuck and Sons, London 

and New York 

9% in. (24.8 cm) 



267 

Anonymous artist 

Naughty Boy's and Girl's Magic Transformations, 

1890 

Published by McLoughlin Bros., New York 

7% in. (19.7 cm) 

268 

Anonymous artist 
Speaking Picture Book, 1893 
Published in Germany 
121/2 in. (31.8 cm) 

269 

Anonymous artist 

The Children's Tableaux, 1895 

PubHshed by Ernest Nister, London, and E. P. 

Dutton, New York 

13 in. (33 cm) 

270 

E. Stuart Hardy 

The Model Menagerie, by L. L. Weeden, 1895 
Published by Ernest Nister, London, and E. P. 
Dutton, New York 

11 in. (27.9 cm) 

271 

E. Stuart Hardy 

//; Wonderland, 1896 

PubHshed by Ernest Nister, London, and E. P. 

Dutton, New York 

11 in. (27.9 cm) 

272 

Anonymous artist 

Little Pets, 1896 

Published by Ernest Nister, London, and E. P. 

Dutton, New York 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 

273 

Peter NeweH (American, 1862-1924) 

The Slant Book, 1910 

PubHshed bv Harper and Bros., New York 

121/2 in. (31.8 cm) 



254 

Anonymous artist 

New Puss in Boots, 1873 

PubHshed by Dean and Son, London 

7'/4 in. (19.7 cm) 

255 

Anonymous artist 

Royal Moveable Punch and Judy. 1873 

PubHshed by Dean and Son, London 

141/4 in. (36.2 cm) 

256 

Anonymous artist 
Tale of an Old Sugar Teh, 1873 
PubHshed by Dean and Son, London 
12 in. (30.5 cm) 



264 

Anonymous artist 
Jumho and the Countryman, c. 1890 
Published by McLoughHn Bros., New York 
11 in. (27.9 cm) 

265 

Anonymous artist 

The Land of Long Ago, by L. L. Weeden, 1890 

Published bv Ernest Nister, London, and E. P. 

Dutton, New \brk 

101/2 in. (26.7 cm) 

266 

Anonymous artist 

Magic Moments, by Clifton Bingham, 1890 

PubHshed by Ernest Nister, London, and E. P. 

Dutton, New York 

95/4 in. (24.8 cm) 



274 

George Alfred Williams (American, b. 1875) 

The Bettijak Book, by Clara Andrews WilHams, 

1914 

Published by Frederick A. Stokes, New York 

11 in. (27.9 cm) 

275 

Anonymous artist 

Fanny's Funny Face, c. 1920 

91/2 in. (24.1 cm) 

276 

Margarethe Stannard 

My Dolly's Home, by Doris Harvey, 1921 

PubHshed bv Arts and General PubHshers, 

Ltd., London 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 



33 




Fig. 19 Lothar Meggendorfer, illustration trom 
Traz'els of Little Lord Thumb and His Man Damien, 
1891 (cat. no. 293). 



277 

W.ilt Disney Studios 

The "Pop-iip" Silly Symphoniei, 1933 

Published by Blue Ribbon Books, New \ork 

yy4 in. (24.8 cm) 

278 

Anonymous artist 

Bookano Pop-up, c. 1934 

Published by Strand Publications, London 

8?4 in. (22.2 cm) 

279 

Anonymous artist 

Bobby Bear, 1935 

Published by Whitman, Racine, Wis. 

8 in. (20.3 cm) 

280 

Peter Newell (American, 1862-1924) 
The- Hole Book. 1936 

Published by Harper and Bros., New York 
8Vi in. (21.6 cm) 



Lothar Meggendorfer 

281 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 
Book cover mock-up for Der Verwaudlungs- 
kiinstler (The transformation artist) 
Watercolor, mbted media 
10^/4 in. (27.3 cm) 

282 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

Three illustrations for In Grosspapa\ Garten 

(In grandpapa's garden), c. 1880 

Watercolor over pencil 

9'/2 X 7'/4 in. (24.1 x 18.4 cm) (title page); 

8 X IVi in. (20.3 x 19.7 cm) each 

283 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 
Neiie lebende Bilder (New lively pictures), 1885 
Published by Verlag von Braun, Munich 
13 in. (33 cm) 

284 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 
Immer Luitig (Always fijnny), 1886 
Published by Verlag von Braun, Munich 
13 in. (33 cm) 

285 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

Illustrations for Auj der Kmdentube (From the 

nursery), c. 1886 

Pencil 

12y2 X 52 in. (31.8 x 132.1 cm) (approx.) 



286 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

Three illustrations for Am der Kinderstube 

(From the nursery), c. 1886 

Watercolors 

12 X 15 '/4 in. (30.5 x 39.4 cm) each 

287 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

Curious Creatures, 1890 

Published by H. Grevel, London 

13 in. (33 cm) 

288 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

Histoires pour rire (Comical stories), 1890 

Published by A. Capendu, Paris 

15 in. (38.1cm) 

289 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 
Lebende Bilder (Lively pictures), 1890 
Published by Verlag von Braun, Munich 
13 in. (33 cm) 

290 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

Neue Thierbilder (New animal pictures), 1890 

Published by Verlag von Braun und Schneider, 

Munich 

13 in. (33 cm) 

291 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 
Scenes in the Life of a Masher, 1890 
Published by H. Grevel, London 
14y2 in. (36.8 cm) 

292 

Lothar Meggendorfer (Germ,in, 1847-1925) 

Look at Me, 1891 

Pubhshed by H. Grevel, London 

10>/2 in. (26.7 cm) 

293 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

Travels of Little Lord Thumb and His Man 

Damien, 1891 

Pubhshed by H. Grevel, London 

lOM. in. (26.7 cm) 

Fig. 19 

294 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

All Alive. 1894 

Published bv H. Grevel, London 

13 in. (33 cm) 

295 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

Three mechanical illustrations for Lach mit mirl 

(Laugh with me!), c. 1896 

Ink and watercolor 

121/2 X 4'/2 in. (31.8 x 11.4 cm) each 



296 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

Illustration for Chop Heads and Change Faces, 

c. 1898 

Watercolor over pencil 

13'/2 in. (34.3 cm) 

297 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 
Chop Heads and Change Faces, 1898 
Published by H. Grevel, London 

111/2 in. (29.2 cm) 

298 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

Das Puppenhaus (The doUhouse), 1899 

Published by Verlag von J. F. Schrcibcr, 

Esslingen 

8V4 X 47'/2 in. (21 X 120.7 cm) (approx., 

extended) 

299 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 
Lack mit mir! (Laugh with me!), 1900 
Published by Verlag von J. F. Schreiber, 
Esslingen 
13 in. (33 cm) 

300 

Lothar Meggendorfer (German, 1847-1925) 

Six illustrations for Die Uhr (The clock), 1907 

Pencil, ink, and watercolor 

81/4 X 10^/4 in. (21 X 27.3 cm) each 

Fig. 15 



35 





Fig. 20 Richard Dovle, illustration from In Fairy- 
land, by William AJlingham, 1870 (cat. no. 317). 






he nineteenth century witnessed the institutionalization of the idea of 
childhood as a period distinct from adulthood'' and as a time to be 
enjoyed, at least by prosperous middle-class Victorians. Durinj^ the 
latter halt of the century many of the classics of children's hterature in 
English appeared, including Lewis CslttoWs Alice's y^dveniures in Wonderland {\2i6S), 
Louisa May Alcott's Little Women (1868-69), Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure 
Island (1883), Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), and Rudyard 
Kipling's /wH^/c Book (1894). This period also saw the emergence of the picture 
book, in which the illustrations — and the artist's vision — ^were at least as impor- 
tant as the text. No longer anonymous, artists were aided by technical advances in 
printing and a growing middle-class market for hooks. 

Late in the eighteenth century illustrations by Thomas Bewick (1753-1828; 
see cat. no. 22) and William Blake (1757-1827; see cat. no. 109) began to appear 
in British children's books, laying the foundation for the practice of commission- 
ing well-known artists to illustrate texts. Still, such high-quality illustrations remained 
the exception rather than the rule. Until the mid-nineteenth century most books 
were printed in black-and-white, primarily in the medium of wood engraving, with 
the only color provided by the laborious and expensive process of hand-coloring. 
After mid-century color printing was prevalent in children's books, though many 
artists preferred the more reliable methods of black-and-white printing until the 
1870s (see fig. 22\ cat. nos. 315, 331). 

English caricaturist George Cruikshank (1792-1878) made some of the 
most influential illustrations of the century when he created etchings for the 1823 
German Popular Stories (see fig. 23, cat. no. 302), the first English translation of 
the celebrated collection of folk tales published in German several years earher by 
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. William Thackeray declared Cruikshank's illustra- 
tions to be "the first real, kindly, agreeable and infinitely amusing and charming 
illustrations in a child's book in England."" Cruikshank continued to influence the 
genre of children's books with his illustrations for Charles Dickens's novels as well 
as his retellings of favorite tales to emphasize his temperance behets, published in 
the 1850s and 1860s (see title page; cat. nos. 167-69, 174). 

In the second half of the nineteenth century technical and artistic inno- 
vations led to the emergence of children's book illustration as a major artistic genre. 



Nineteenth- 
Century 
Illustrators 




Fig. 21 Richard Doyle, illustration from Jn Fairy- 
land, by WiUiam Allingham, 1870 (cat. no. 317). 



Klf arul Llwls. 



37 




keiC ^eb6)e.,q older) Ken., M^ Ay fron^t^e CfldVik,, 



Fig. 22 George Cruikshank, illustration {wmjack 
and the Beanstalk. 1854 (cat. no. 169). 



Richard Doyle (1824-83), who contributed illustrations and political caricatures 
to the British comic journal Punch in the 1840s and 1850s, later became famous 
for his pictures of elves and fairies in such elaborate works as William Allingham's 
In Fanylaud miQ; see figs. 20, 21; cat. nos. 317, 345).'^ 

The greatest advances in color printing came with the wood engravings 
of Edmund Evans and his development of the toy book in the mid- 1860s. These 
thin picture books consisting of eight pages, each printed on only one side, between 
stiff paper covers, had existed since the beginning ot the Victorian era and were 
published in great numbers by Dean and Son, Roudedge, and other firms, but usu- 
ally without the participation of notable illustrators. Evans succeeded in engaging 
such major artists as Randolph Caldecott (1846-86), Walter Crane (1845-1915), 
and Kate Greenaway (1846-1901), engraving and printing the books himself and 
working with publishers for distribution.'" 

Each of these artists brought a different style to the Evans books. Crane 
was influenced by WiUiam Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement as well as 
by Japanese prints. He illustrated a variety of toy books tor Evans, including 



38 



alphabet books (see fig. 2, cat. no. 321), lairy talcs (sec cover, fig. 24; cat. nos. 322, 
324), and nursery rhymes (see cat. no. 323), most published by Routledge before 
1876."'Caldecott took inspiration from English caricaturists Cruikshank, William 
Hogarth, and Thomas Rowlandson, and the stories he illustrated consisted pri- 
marily of traditional English tales and nursery rhymes (see cat. nos. 339-41, 350, 
351). Greenaway — who gained extraordinary popularity with the publication of 
her first children's book. Under the IVindow, in 1878 — remained adored by the pub- 
lic as well as by influential critic John Ruskin (see fig. 25, cat. no. 330). Often act- 
ing as both author and illustrator, she is best known tor her idealized illustrations 
of children in characteristic bonnets and quaint costumes in picturesque settings 
recalling the English countryside (see fig. 25; cat. nos. 338, 342, 343, 346). Books 
illustrated by these artists were also tremendously popular in the United States, 
whose own publishing industry had not achieved the high technical standards 
reflected in English picture books of the period. Evans dominated the industry 
until his death in 1905, when commercial wood engraving was replaced by photo- 
graphic reproduction processes. 

Like Doyle, John Tenniel (1820-1914) had also worked for Punch but is 
best known as the illustrator of A/ice's Adventures in Wonderland (fig. 26) and its 
sequel, Through the Looking Glass (1872; cat. no. 370). Alice was one of the land- 
marks of the nineteenth-century fantasy genre, helping to initiate a tradition ol 
fantastical tales with no obvious moral. Working in close collaboration with author 
Lewis CarroU, Tenniel created illustrations that set the standard tor a work that 
has been interpreted by more than one hundred illustrators since its initial publi- 
cation (see fig. 27; cat. nos. 369-81). 

In 1880 Carlo Lorenzini (1826-90), under the pseudonym Collodi, wrote 
The Adventures ofPinocchio (see fig. 28; cat. nos. 382-91), which was first published 
in English in 1892. Collodi's story originally appeared as a serial in the Italian 
magazine Giornale dei bambini and is one of the most inventive and complex ot 
nineteenth-century fantasies. Late in the century in France Louis-Maurice Boutet 
de Monvel (1851-1913) further refined the art of the picture book with the elab- 
orate color lithographs for the \%'^b Jeanne dArc (Joan of Arc; cat. no. 364). Some 
of the most important American book artists, such as Howard Pyle (1853-1911), 
began as illustrators for the numerous juvenile periodicals that appeared during the 
Reconstruction era (see cat. no. 392). 




Fig. 23 George Cruikshank, illustration from 
German Popular Stories, vol. 1, 1823 (cat. no. 302). 



39 




Fig. 24 Walter Crane, illustration from Beauty 
ami the Beast, 1875 (cat. no. 326). 




Fig. 25 Kate Greenaway, illustration from Under 
the Window. 1878 {cat. no. 330). 



Nineteenth-Century 
Illustrators 

301 

George Cruiksh.mk (British, 1792-1878) 
Fairburn's Dacriplion of the Popular New 
Pimtomime Called Harlequin and Mother Goose, 

lsor> 

Published by John Fairburn, London 

7'A in. (19 cm) 

Richard Vogler Cruikshank Collection, 

Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts, UCLA 

302 

George Cruikshank (British, 1792-1878) 

German Popular Stories, vol. 1, 1823 

Published by C. Baldwyn, London 

7'/4 in. (18.4 cm) 

Richard Vogler Cruikshank Collection, 

Grunwald Center tor the Graphic Arts, UCLA 

Fig. 23 

303 

George Craikshank (British, 1792-1878) 

German Popular Stories, vol. 2, 1826 

Pubhshed by James Robins, London 

7V4 in. (18.4 cm) 

Richard Vogler Cruikshank Collection, 

Grunwald Center tor the Graphic Arts, UCLA 

304 

George Cruikshank (British, 1792-1878) 

Punch and Judy, 1828 

Pubhshed by S. Prowett, London 

8V2 in. (21.6 cm) 

305 

Richard Doyle (British, 1824-83) 
The Story of Jack and the Giants, 1851 
Pubhshed bv Cundall and Addey, London 
8V2 in. (21.6 cm) 

306 

George Cruikshank (British, 1792-1878) 
Hop o'My Thumb. 1S53 
Published by David Bogue, London 
7 in. (17.8 cm) 

307 

George Cruikshank (British, 1792-1878) 
Illustrations from Hop o'My Thumb, 1853 
Six hand-colored etchings 
bVA. X 5 in. (17.1 X 12.7 cm) each 

308 

George Cruikshank (British, 1792-1878) 
Jack and the Beanstalk, 1854 
Pubhshed by Da\id Bogue, London 
7 in. (17.8 cm) 



309 

George Cruikshank (British, 1792-1878) 
Illustrations irom Jack and the Beanstalk, 1854 
Six hand-colored etchings 
6% X 5 in. (17.1 x 12.7 cm) each 

310 

A. H. Forrester (Alfred Crowquill, pseud.; 

British, 1804-72) 

Famous Fairy Tales, 1859 

Published by Ward and Lock, London 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 

311 

A. H. Forrester (Alfred Crowquill, pseud.; 

British, 1804-72) 

Sketchbook with watercolor illustrations for 

The Two Sparrows, c. 1859 

7W in. (19 cm) 

312 

Charles Bennett (British, 1828-67) 
Nine Lives of a Cat, 1860 
Pubhshed by Griffith and Farran, London 
71/4 in. (18.4 cm) 

313 

A. H. Forrester (Alfred Crowquill, pseud.; 

British, 1804-72) 

Tales for Children, 1864 

Published by Routledge, Warne, and Roudedge, 

London 

7y4 in. (18.4 cm) 

314 

Charles Bennett (British, 1828-67) 
The Sorrowful Ending of Noodledoo, 1865 
Pubhshed by Sampson Low, Son, and 
Marston, London 
91/4 in. (23.5 cm) 

315 

Arthur Boyd Houghton (British, 1836-75) 
Dalziel's Illustrated Arabian Nights, vol. 1, 
by H. W. Dulcken, 1865 
Pubhshed by Ward, Lock, and Tyler, London 
11 in. (27.9 cm) 

316 

Edward Lear (British, 1812-88) 
Lear's Book oj Nonsense, 1865 
Pubhshed by Frederick Warne, London 
W/i in. (26.7 cm) 

317 

Richard Doyle (British, 1824-83) 

In Fairyland, by William Allingham, 1870 

Pubhshed by Longmans, Green, Reader, 

and Dyer 

15V4 in. (38.7 cm) 

Figs. 20, 21 



318 

Attributed to Richard Doyle (British, 1824-83) 

The Fames' Ball. c.\%7Q 

Ink and gouache 

13Vix 17 in. (34.3x43.2 cm) 

319 

Edward Henry Wehnert (British, 1813-68) 

Grimm Fairy Library, 1 870 

Box containing ten volumes 

Published by George Routledge and Sons, 

London and New York 

Box: bVi X 7V4 x 5 in. (16.5 x 19.1 x 12.7 cm) 

Books; bVi in. (16.5 cm) each 

320 

Eleanor Vere Boyle (British, 1825-1916) 
Fairy Tales, by Hans Christian Andersen, 1872 
Pubhshed bv Sampson Low, Marston, Low, 
and Searle, London 
12V^ in. (31.8 cm) 

321 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 

Illustration iox Noah's Ark ABC, 1872 

Watercolor 

Il'/4x8y4 in. (29.2x22.2 cm) 

322 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 

Bluebeard 1874 

Pubhshed by George Roudedge and Sons, 

London 

9i6 in. (24.1 cm) 

323 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 

Old Mother Hubbard. 1874 

Pubhshed by George Routledge and Sons, 

London 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 

324 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 

Puss in Boots, 1874 

Pubhshed by George Roudedge and Sons, 

London 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 

325 

The Princess Hesse Schwartzbourg 
Queens and Kings, 1874 
Published by Chatto and Windus, New York 
13Vi in. (34.3 cm) 

326 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 

Beauty and the Beast, 1874 

Pubhshed by George Roudedge and Sons, 

London 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 

Fig. 24 



42 



327 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 

Goody Two Shoes, 1875 

Published by George Routledge and Sons, 

London and New York 

lO'/i in. (26.7 cm) 

328 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 

Tie Frog Prime, 1876 

Published by George Routledge and Sons, 

London and New York 

lOVi in. (26.7 cm) 

329 

Randolph Caldecott (British, 1846-86) 
Wood engraving block (or Join Gilpin, 1878 
6>/4 X 5 X % in. (15.9 X 13.3 x 1.9 cm) 

330 

Kate Greenaway (British, 1846-1901) 

Under the Window. 1878 

Published by George Routledge and Sons, 

London 

9V4 in. (23.5 cm) 

Fig. 25 

331 

Gustave Dore (French, 1832-83) 

Swh.id the Sailor, 1879 

Published by John and Robert Maxwell, 

London 

IIV2 in. (29.2 cm) 

332 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 

Book with watercolor illustrations tor Lionel's 

Travels, 1880 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 

333 

Attributed to Kate Greenaway (British, 

1846-1901) 

Untitled, c. 1880 

Pen and ink 

21/2 x4V2 in. (6.4x10.8 cm) 

334 

Attributed to Kate Greenaway (British, 

1846-1901) 

Untitled, c. 1880 

Watercolor 

3V2X 3 in. (8.9x7.6 cm) 

335 

Jules Rostaing (French, b. 1824) 

Curieux voyages de Polichinelle (Punch's strange 

adventures), 1880 

Published by Magnin et lils, Paris 

8% in. (22.2 cm) 



336 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 

Book with watercolor illustrations lor Lionel's 

Latitudes, 1882 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 

337 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 

Study for Pothooks and Perseverance endpapers, 

c. 1880-86 

Watercolor 

9x18 in. (22.9x45.7 cm) 

338 

Kate Greenaway (British, 1846-1901) 
Pippen Hill, 1882 

Pubhshed by McLoughlin Bros., New York 
91/2 in. (24.1 cm) 

339 

Randolph Caldecott (British, 1846-86) 
The Hcy-Diddle-Diddle Picture Book, 1883 
Published by George Roudedge and Sons, 
London and New York 

8 in. (20.3 cm) 

340 

Randolph Caldecott (British, 1846-86) 
Randolph Caldecott's Graphic Pictures, 1883 
Published by George Routledge and Sons, 
London and New York 

11 in. (27.9 cm) 

341 

Randolph Caldecott (British, 1846-86) 
Eight postcards from The House That Jack Built 
and The Queen of Hearts, c. 1883 
Published by Frederick Warne, London 
51/4 X 31/2 in. (13.3 x 8.9 cm) each 

342 

Kate Greenaway (British, 1846-1901) 

Kate Greenaway's Almanacks, 1883-1926 

Selection of eleven volumes 

Published by Frederick Warne, London, and 

George Roudedge and Sons, London 

4 in. (10.2 cm) each 

343 

Kate Greenaway (British, 1846-1901) 
Little Ann, by Jane and Ann Taylor, 1883 
Pubhshed by George Routledge and Sons, 
London 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 

344 

Louis-Maurice Boutet de Monvel (French, 

1851-1913) 

Chansons de France pour les petitsfranfais (Songs 

of'France for French children), 1884 

Published by Plon-Nourrit, Paris 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 



345 

Richard Doyle (British, 1824-83) 

The Princess Nobody, by Andrew Lang, 1884 

Published by Longmans, Green and Company, 

London 

9V2 in. (24.1 cm) 

346 

Kate Greenaway (British, 1846-1901) 

Marigold Garden. 1885 

Published by George Routledge and Sons, 

London 

11 in. (27.9 cm) 

347 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 
Slate and Pencil-vania, 1885 
Published by Marcus Ward, London 
8>/2 in. (21.6 cm) 

348 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1901) 
Pothooks and Perseverance, 1886 
Published by Marcus Ward, London 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 

349 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1901) 
A Romance of the Three 'Rs, 1886 
Published by Marcus Ward, London 
8^/4 in. (22.2 cm) 

350 

Randolph Caldecott (Brirish, 1846-86) 
Randolph Caldecott's Picture Book 
Pubhshed by Frederick Warne, London 
9>/4 in. (23.5 cm) 

351 

Randolph Caldecott (British, 1846-86) 

Randolph Caldecott's Picture Book Number 2, 

1886 

Published by George Routledge and Sons, 

London and New York 

91/4 in. (23.5 cm) 

352 

Richard Doyle (British, 1824-83) 

Jack the Giant Killer, 1888 

Published by Eyre and Spottiswoode, London 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 

353 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 
Sbi illustrations tor Flora's Feast, 1889 
Watercolors 

9 X 6% in. (22.9 x 17.1 cm) each 

354 

Walter Crane (British. 1845-1915) 

Flora's Feast, 1889 

Published by Cassell, London 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 



43 





Fig. 26 Juhn Tenniel, illustration from Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderlami, by Lewis Carroll, 1866 
(cat. no. 369). 



Fig. 27 Barr}' Moser, illustration from Lewis 
Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, 1982 
(cat. no. 378). Used by permission of the artist. 




Fig. 28 Enrico Mazzanti, illustration from 

Le avventure di Pinocchio, by Carlo Collodi, 1883 

(cat. no. 383). 



355 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1915) 
Floras Feast, 1889 
Published by Cassell, London 
10 in. (25.4 cm) 

356 

Kate Grecnaway (British, 184b-190U 
Kate Greenaway's Book of Games, 1889 
PubHshed by George Routledge and Sons, 
London 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 

357 

Randolph Caldecott (British, 1846-86) 

The Milkmaid, z. \?,90 

Published by George Routledge and Sons, 

London 

8 in. (20.3 cm) 

358 

Palmer Cox (Canadian, 1840-1924) 

Another Brownie Book, 1890 

PubUshed by the Century Company, New York 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 

359 

Palmer Cox (Canadian, 1840-1924) 

The Brownies Fishing, 1 890 

Pen and ink 

8% x8V4 in. (22.2x21 cm) 

360 

Palmer Cox (Canadian, 1840-1924) 
Brownie Stamps, c. 1890 
Published by Baumgarten, Baltimore 
Box: 6 1/4 X 11 x 1 in. (15.9 x 27.9 x 2.5 cm) 

361 

A. de Ville d'Avray 

Voyage dans la lime avant 1900 (Voyage to the 

moon before 1900), 1892 

Published byjouvet, Paris 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 

362 

Palmer Cox (Canadian, 1840-1924) 
The Brownie Books Poster, c. 1895 
Color Hthograph 
10x151/4 in. (25.4x38.7 cm) 

363 

Palmer Cox (Canadian, 1840-1924) 
The Brownies in California, 1895 
Pen and ink 
11x11 in. (27.9x27.9 cm) 

364 

Louis-Maurice Boutet de Monvel (French, 

1851-1913) 

Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc), 1896 

Published by Plon-Nourrit, Paris 

9y4 in. (24.8 cm) 



365 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1901) 

Beauty and the Beast Picture Book, 1900 

Published by John Lane, London and New 

York 

105/4 in. (27.3 cm) 

366 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1901) 

Beauty and the Beast Picture Book, 1 900 

PubUshed by John Lane, London and New 

York 

10^/4 in. (27.3 cm) 

367 

Walter Crane (British, 1845-1901) 
AMascjueofDays, by Elia, 1901 
Published by Cassell, London 
ll'/4 in. (28.6 cm) 

368 

Kate Greenaway (British, 1846-1901) 

The Pied Piper ofHamelin, by Robert Browning, 

1910 

Published by Frederick Warne, London and 

New York 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 



Alice in Wonderland 

369 

JohnTenniel (British, 1820-1914) 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis 

Carroll, 1866 

Published by Macmillan and Co., London 

7'/: in. (19 cm) 

Fig. 26 

370 

JohnTenniel (British, 1820-1914) 

Through the Looking Glass, and What Alice Found 

There, by Lewis Carroll, 1872 

Published by Macmillan and Co., London 

7Vi in. (19 cm) 

371 

Lewis Carroll [pseud. Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson] (British, 1832-98) 
Alice's Adventures Underground, 1886 
Published by Macmillan and Co., London and 
New York 
7^2 in. (19 cm) 

372 

JohnTenniel (British, 1820-1914) 

The Nursery Alice, " by Lewis Carroll, 1890 

PubHshed by Macmillan and Co., London 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 



373 

Peter Newell (American, 1862-1924) 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis 

CarroU, 1901 

Published by Harper and Bros., London and 

New York 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 

374 

Arthur Rackham (British, 1867-1939) 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis 

Carroll, 1907 

Published by Doubleday, Page and Co., New 

York 

11V4 in. (28.6 cm) 

375 

Anonymous artist 

Alice in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll, 1921 
Published by Raphael Tuck and Sons, London 
9 in. (22.9 cm) 

376 

Bessie Pease 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis 

Carroll, 1934 

PubUshed by J. Coker and Co., London 

low in. (26 cm) 

377 

Barry Moser (American, b. 1940) 

Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, 

1982 

PubUshed by Pennyroyal Press, West Hatfield, 

Mass. 

17 in. (43.2 cm) 

Fig. 27 

378 

Barry Moser (American, b. 1940) 

lUustrations from Letvis Carroll's Alice's 

Adventures in Wonderland, 1982 

Twelve wood engravings 

PubUshed by Pennyroyal Press, West Hatfield, 

Mass. 

161.6 X 1 1 in. (41.9 X 27.9 cm) each 

Fig. 27 

379 

Michael Hague (American) 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, bv Lewis 

CarroU, 1985 

PubUshed bv Methuen Children's Books, 

London 

IOV4 in. (26 cm) 

380 

JohnTenniel (British, 1820-1914) 
lUustrations {rom Alice's Adventures in Wonder- 
land, by Lewis CarroU, 1865 (printed 1988) 
Sixteen wood engravings 
Published by Macmillan and Co., London 
9^2 X 7 in. (24.1 x 17.8 cm) each 



46 



381 

JohnTenniel (British, 1820-1914) 

Illustrations from Through the Looking Glass, 

tint] What Alice Found There, by Lewis Carroll 

1872 (printed 1988) 

Wood engravings 

Published by Macmlllan and Co., London 

9>/ix 7 in. (24.1x17.8 cm) each 



Pitiocchio 

382 

Four Pinocchio dolls 

Wood 

H: 4V2 in. (11.4 cm) to W/i m. (47 cm) 

383 

Enrico Mazzanti (Italian, b. 1852) 

Le avventure di Pinocchto, by Carlo CoUodi, 

1883 

Published by Fehce Paggi Libraio, Florence 

7>/im. (18.4 cm) 

Fig. 28 



389 

P'iorenzo Faorzi 

/.(■ tivventure t/i Pinocchio, by Carlo CoUodi, 

19.VS 

Pubhshed by Adriano Salani, Florence 

7'/4 in. (18.4 cm) 

390 

Richard Floethe 

Pinocchio, by Carlo Collodi, 1937 

Published by the Limited Editions Club, 

New York 

10'4 in. (26 cm) 

391 

The Walt Disney Parade, 1940 

Published by Garden City Publishing, Garden 

City, N.Y. 

IIV4 in. (28.6 cm) 



384 

Enrico Mazzanti (Italian, b. 1852) 
The Story of a Puppet; or. The Adventures of 
Pmocchio, by Carlo CoUodi, 1892 
PubUshed by T. Fisher Unwin, London 
6% in. (16.5 cm) 

385 

AttiUo Mussino (Italian, 1878-1954) 

The Adventures of Pinocchio, by Carlo CoUodi, 

1929 

PubUshed by MacmiUan and Co., New York 

111/2 in. (29.2 cm) 

386 

Maud (Hungarian, 1890-1971) and Miska 

Petersham (Hungarian, 1888-1960) 

Pinocchio, by Carlo CoUodi, 1932 

PubUshed by Garden Citv PubUshing, Garden 

City, N.Y. 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 

387 

Harold B. Lentz 

The Pop-up Pinocchio, 1933 

PubUshed by Blue Ribbon Books, New York 

81/2 in. (21.6 cm) 

388 

Harold B. Lentz 

The Pop-up Pinocchio, 1933 

Published by Blue Ribbon Books, New York 

8y2 in. (21.6 cm) 



47 




n this century near-universal literacy in developed countries and 
technical advances that have made it possible to produce relatively 
inexpensive high-quality illustrated books have contributed to tremen- 
dous growth in children's publishing. Innovations in book printing in 
the early years of the century, particularly in the use of photography and four-color 
processing, led to the development of the deluxe gift book, which expanded upon 
the rich tradition of Edmund Evans. Elaborate watercolors by Edmund Dulac 
(1882-1953), Kay Nielsen (1886-1957), and Arthur Rackliam (1867-1939) in 
England, and the paintings of Maxfield Parrish (1870-1966) and N. C. Wyeth 
(1882-1945) in the United States, became the hallmarks ot these books, with illus- 
trations printed on special glossy paper and tipped into the pages. The works of 
Rackham, Dulac, and Nielsen varied in style and inspiration. Rackham empha- 
sized line, using pen and ink with watercolor to create evocative illustrations for 
fairy tales and other stories (see fig. 29; cat. nos. 404-7, 428, 429). Dulac's and 
Nielsen's work was noted tor its colorism and influences drawn from Eastern artis- 
tic sources such as Persian miniatures. A notable example ot Nielsen's intricate and 
exotic style is a suite of watercolor illustrations for a never-published version of 
One Thousand and One Nights (see fig. 30; cat. nos. 410, 412-27). Pubhc demand 
for deluxe picture books diminished after World War I. While interest in Rack- 
ham's books persisted, younger artists such as Nielsen, who published only tour 
books of fairy tales, never achieved such sustained renown.' 

Also dating to the early part of the century, books by Beatrbc Potter dit- 
fered in style from the deluxe gift books, and her small, cozy books — designed so 
that even very young children could comfortably hold them — instead tollow the 
picture book tradition of Caldecott. Her Tale of Peter Rabbit wi.s first privately pub- 
lished by the author in 1901 (cat. no. 398), with a colored frontispiece and other 



The Twentieth 
Century 




Fig. 29 (opposite) Arthur Rackham, untitled, 

I904(cat. no. 404). 

Fig. 30 Kay Nielsen, The Tale of King Yunan and 
Dtilhiu the Doctor, from One Thousand and One 
Nighti. 1917 (cat. no. 410). 



49 



^ 



-?'• 



<' 









^ 








Fig. 31 Dr. Seuss, drawing for / Can Lid Thirty 
Tigen Today! 1969 (cat. no. 477). ® Dr. Seuss 
Enterprises, L.P. 1969, 1997. Used hy permission. 
All rights reserved. 



illustrations in black-and-white, but was soon followed by numerous editions with 
full-color plates (see cat. no. 400). 

In the United States early twentieth-century color printing technology 
made the simple black-and-white illustrations favored by Pyle and his contempo- 
raries seem outmoded. W. W. Denslow's illustrations for L. Frank Baum's Won- 
derful Wizard of Oz (1900; cat. no. 396) included one hundred two-color images 
and twenty- tour fuU-color plates, making it one of the most elaborate books of its 
time. Many illustrators continued to explore the possibilities of black-and-white, 
however. For example, Wanda Gag's creative integration of line illustration and 
text in Millions of Cats (1928; cat. no. 433) made her the first important American 
author-iUustrator. 

The earliest picture books by Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, 
date from the 1930s and also reflect the importance of the author-illustrator in 
twentieth-century children's books. Geisel was a former magazine cartoonist, and 
his preliminary drawings reveal a complex process of merging text and illustration 
to create his witty and lively "logical nonsense" (see figs. 31, 32; cat. nos. 444-78). 
Lucille and HoUing C. HoUing's books of the 1940s evince a nostalgia for prein- 
dustrialized America, with rich illustrations and texts focusing on the country's 
natural resources and on Native Americans' interactions with the environment (see 
figs. 33, 34; cat. nos. 479-87). 

Children's literature today is comparable to popular adult literature in its 
range and diversity of genres, with books designed tor readers at every stage of 
development, from intancy to young adulthood. The continued vitalit}' ot children's 
publishing, despite competition from a host of newer media, suggests that the illus- 
trated storybook remains unparalleled in its ability to nurture the imagination and 
to provide both instruction and delight. 



Fig. 32 Dr. Seuss, drawing for McEUigot J Pool 
{" . . . that there IS something bigger"), 1947 (cat. 
no. 451). '° Dr. Seuss Enterprises, L.P. 1947. 1974. 
Used by permission. All rights reserved. 




A jiih ikji'i 10 bi^. if imt hioit uhiil I nil. 
That lit mihs a ubalt twk Ith J "iiy laidti 



51 




Fig. 33 Holling C. Hollmg, illustration for 
P,uldle-lo-tht-Sai, 1941 (cat. nos. 480,481). 



The Twentieth Century 

392 

Howard Pyle (American, 1853-1911) 
The Wonder Clock. 1888 
Published by Harper and Bros., New Yorlv 
10 in. (25.4 cm) 

393 

Charles Ricketts (British, 1866-1931) and 

Charles Hazclwood Shannon (British, 

1863-1937) 

A Home of Pomegranates, by Oscar Wilde, 1891 

Published by James R. Osgood, London 

83/4 in. (22.2 cm) 

Collection of the William Andrews Clark 

Memoriiil Library, UCLA 

394 

Jose Guadalupe Posada (Mexican, 1852-1913) 
Biblioteca del nino mexicano (The Mexican 
chUd'shbrary), 1899-1901 
Selection ot twelve volumes 
4% in. (12.1 cm) each 
Collection ot the Grunwald Center for the 
Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of Professor and 
Mrs. Stanley L. Robe 

395 

Victor Vasnetsov (Russian, 1848-1926) 

The Tale ofOleg the Seer, by Alexander Pushkin, 

1899 

Published by the Office of Government Papers, 

Saint Petersburg 

13'/4 in. (33.7 cm) 



396 

William Wallace Denslow (American, 

1856-1915) 

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, by L. Frank 

Baum, 1900 

Published by George M. Hill, Chicago and 

New York 

9 in. (22.9 cm) 

397 

Ivan Bilihin (Russian, 1872-1942) 
Rmuan Folklore. 1901 
13'/4in.(33.7cm) 

398 

Beatrix Potter (British, 1866-1943) 

The Tale of Peter Rahhit. 1901 

Privately published 

5y4 in. (13.3 cm) 

399 

Beatrk Potter (British, 1866-1943) 
The Tailor of Gloucester. 1902 
Privately published 
5'/4 in. (13.3 cm) 

400 

Beatrix Potter (British, 1866-1943) 
TheTale of Peter Rabbit. 1902 
Published by Frederick Warne, London 
S'/j in. (14.6 cm) 

401 

Ivan BUibin (Russian, 1872-1942) 

Volga. 1904 

Published by Ivan Bilibin, Saint Petersburg 

15 in. (38.1 cm) 

Fig. 36 



402 

Henry Justice Ford (British, 1860-1941) 

Illustration for Rubezahl and the Princess, from 

The Brown Fairy Book, 1904 

Gouache 

1 P/4 X 7 '/4 in. (29.8x18.4 cm) 

403 

Henry Justice Ford (British, 1860-1941) 
The Robber Chief Catches the Queen, c. 1904 
Ink drawing 
9'/2x7'/2 in. (24.1x19 cm) 

404 

Arthur R..ckham (British, 1867-1939) 
Untitled, 1904 
Watercolor and ink 
14x11 in. (35.6x27.9 cm) 
Fig. 29 

405 

Arthur Rackham (British, 1867-1939) 

Untitled, c. 1904 

Watercolor and ink 

Made for the National Book League, London 

12'/2X 95/4 in. (31.8x24.8 cm) 

406 

Arthur Rackham (British, 1867-1939) 
Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, by J. M. 
Barrie, 1907 

Published by Hodder and Stoughton, London 
10 in. (25.4 cm) 

407 

Arthur Rackham (British, 1867-1939) 

Grimms' Fairy Tales, 1909 

Pubhshed by Constable and Co., London 

liy4 in. (29.8 cm) 




Fig. 34 HoUing C. HoUing, painted wooden 
model for Paddle-to-the-Sea. 1941 (cat. no. 480). 



53 



408 

Edmund Dulac (French, 1882-1953) 
The Sleeping Beauty and Other Fairy Talei, 1910 
Published by Hodder and Stoughton, London 
ll'/4 in. (28.6 cm) 

409 

Edmund Dulac (French, 1882-1953) 
Edmund Dulac's Fairy Book, 1916 
Published by Hodder and Stoughton, London 
11 in. (27.9 cm) 

410 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Tale of King Yunati and Duhiin the Doctor. 

from One Thousand and One Nighti, 1917 

Watercolor 

13 V^ X 13 y^ in. (34.3x34.3 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

Fig. 30 

411 

Ben Kutcher (Russian, b. 1895) 

A Home of Pomegranate!, bv Oscar Wilde, 1918 

Published by Moffat, Yard, and Co., New York 

8^4 in. (22.2 cm) 

Collection of the William Andrews Clark 

Memorial Library, UCLA 

412 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The First Tale, from One Thousand and One 

Nights, 1918-22 

Watercolor 

13y2 X 13;^ in. (34.3 x 34.3 cm) 

Collection ot the Grunwald Center tor the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

413 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Merchant's Tale of the Young Thief, from One 

Thousand and One Nights, 1918-22 

Watercolor 

13Wxl3Vi in. (34.3x34.3 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, LICLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

414 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Physician's Tale of a Young Man Loved by 

Two Sisters, from One Thousand and One Nights, 

1918-22 

Watercolor 

13'/2 X 131/2 in. (34.3 X 34.3 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 



415 

K.iy Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

Scheherazade Telling the Tales, from One 

Thousand and One Nights, 1918-22 

Watercolor 

14 xl3'/2 in. (35.6x34.3 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

416 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The History ofNoureddin Ali and Bedreddin 

Hassan, from One Thousand and One Nights, 

1918-22 

Watercolor 

13W X W/i in. (34.3 x 34.3 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

417 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Steward's Tale of the Sultan's Wife's Favorite, 

from One Thousand and One Nights, 1918-22 

Watercolor 

131/2 xl3y2 in. (34.3x34.3 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

Fig. 35 

418 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Tale of the Enchanted King of the Black 

Islands, from One Thousand and One Nights, 

1918-22 

Watercolor 

14 xl3V4 in. (35.6x33.7 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

419 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 
The Tale of the First Dervish, from One Thou- 
sand and One Nights, 1918-22 
Watercolor 

13V2 X 13y2 in. (34.3 x 34.3 cm) 
Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 
Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 
IVIemori;il Fund 

420 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Tale of the First Girl, trom One Thousand 

and One Nights, 1918-22 

Watercolor 

14x14 in. (35.6x35.6 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, LICLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen , 

Memorial Fund 



421 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Tale of the Little Hunchback, from One 

Thousand and One Nights, 1918-22 

Watercolor 

14x14 in. (35.6x35.6 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

422 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Tale of the Second Dervish, from One 

Thousand and One Nights, 1918-22 

Watercolor 

14x14 in. (35.6x35.6 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

423 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Tale of the Third Dervish, from One 

Thousand and One Nights. 1918-22 

Watercolor 

14x14 in. (35.6x35.6 cm) 

Collection ot the Grunwald Center tor the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

424 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The History ofNoureddin Ali and Bedreddin 

Hassan, from One Thousand and One Nights, 

1919 

Watercolor 

nVi X 13V2 in. (34.3 X 34.3 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, LICLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

425 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Tailor's Tale of the Lame Young Man and the 

Barber of Baghdad, from One Thousand and One 

Nights, \9\9 

Watercolor 

133/4 X 13% in. (34.9 X 34.9 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kav Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

426 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Tale of King Sinbad and the Falcon, from 

One Thousand and One Nights, 1919 

Watercolor 

13 V^ X nVi in. (34.3 x 34.3 cm) 

Collection of the Grunwald Center tor the 

Graphic Arts, LICLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 



S4 




Fig. 35 Kay Nielsen, The Steward's Tale of the 
Sultans H^ife's Faz'orite, from One Thousand and 
One Nights. 1918-22 (cat. no. 417). 




H.PHAMrHHfI.1'59'^ 



Fig. ,% Ivan Bilibin, Vo/ga. 1904 (cat. no. 401). 



427 

Kay Nielsen (Danish, 1886-1957) 

The Tale of the Fint Derinsh, from One Thomand 

and One Nights. 1919 

Watercolor 

13^/4x14 in. (34.9x35.6 cm) 

Collection ot the Grunwald Center for the 

Graphic Arts, UCLA, gift of the Kay Nielsen 

Memorial Fund 

428 

Arthur Rackham (British, 1867-1939) 

Illustration lor The Bogey Beast, trom English 

Fairy Tales, 1919 

Watercolor and ink 

9% x8Vi in. (24.8x21.6 cm) 

429 

Arthur Rackham (British, 1867-1939) 
English Fairy Tales, 1919 
Published by MacmiUan and Co., New York 
81/4 in. (21 cm) 

430 

William Nicholson (British, 1872-1949) 

The Velveteen Rabbit, by Margery WiUiams, 

1922 

Published by Heinemann, London 

9V^ in. (24.1cm) 

431 

Aldous Huxley (British, 1894-1963) 
Sketchbook with watercolor illustrations for 
Noa, 1924 
SVi in. (14 cm) 

432 

Maxfield Parrish (American, 1870-1966) 

The Knave of Hearts by Louise Saunders, 1 925 

Published by Charles Scribner's Sons, New 

York 

14 in. (35.6 cm) 

433 

Wanda Gag (American, 1893-1946) 
Millions of Cats, 1928 
PubUshed by Coward-McCann, New York 
6y4 in. (17.1cm) 

434 

Lois Lenski (American, b. 1893) 

The Little Engine That Could, by Watty Piper, 

1930 

Pubhshed by Plan and Munk, New York 

SVj in. (21.6 cm) 

435 

Jean de Brunhoff (French, 1899-1937) 

Bahar en famille (Babar and his family), 1938 

Published by Hachette, Paris 

14V6 in. (36.8 cm) 



436 

Robert Lawson (American, 1892-1957) 
The .Story of Ferdinand, by Munro Leaf, 1938 
Published by Viking, New York 
8'/4in. (21 cm) 

437 

Leo Politi (American, 1908-96) 

Pedro, the Angel of Olvera Street, 1946 

Published by Charles Scribner's Sons, 

New York 

8'/2 in. (21.6 cm) 

438 

Jean Chariot (French, 1898-1974) 

Two Little Trains, by Margaret Wise Brown, 

1949 

Published by William Scott, New York 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 

439 

Leo Pohti (American, 1908-96) 
SongoftheSivallows, 1949 
Published by Charles Scribner's Sons, 
New York 
10'/4 in. (26 cm) 

440 

Leo Politi (American, 1908-96) 
Pedro, el Angel de la Calle Olvera. 1961 
Published by Charles Scribner's Sons, 
New York 
81/2 in. (21.6 cm) 

441 

Maurice Sendak (American, b. 1928) 

The Juniper Tree and Other Tales from Grimm, 

vol. 2, 1973 

Pubhshed by Farrar, Strauss, and Giroax, 

New York 

7V4 in. (18.4 cm) 

442 

Joyce Lancaster Wilson 

A Child's Garden of Verses, by Robert Louis 

Stevenson, 1978 

Published by the Press in Tuscany Alley, 

San Francisco 

10 in. (25.4 cm) 

443 

Barry Moser (American, b. 1940) 

The Wonderful Wizard ofOz, by L. Frank 

Baum, 1985 

PubUshed by Pennyroyal Press, West Hatfield, 

Mass. 

13 in. (33 cm) 



Dr. Seuss 

444 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geiscl; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for The 500 Hats of Bartholomew 

Cubhins (front and back cover), 1938 

Charcoal, pencil, and ink 

13x20 in. (33x50.8 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

445 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for The 500 Hats of Bartholomew 

Cubbins ("No! You look at me"), 1938 

Charcoal, pencil, and ink 

18x24 in. (45.7x61 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

446 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for The 500 Hats of Bartholomew 

Cubhins ("Suddenly Sir Alaric stopped"), 1938 

Charcoal, pencil, and ink 

16 X 22 in. (40.6 x 55.9 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

447 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for The 500 Hats of Bartholomew 

Cubbins ("Black magic, that's just what it is"), 

1938 

Charcoal, pencil, and ink 

18x22 in. (45.7x55.9 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

448 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for The 500 Hats of Bartholomew 

Cubhins ("But when Bartholomew stepped up 

on the wall . . ."), 1938 

Charcoal, pencil, and ink 

18x13 in. (45.7x33 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

449 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins, 1938 

Published by Vanguard, New York 

12V4 in. (31.1cm) 



57 



450 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for The King's Stilts ("This was the 

moment King Birtram lived for"), 1939 

Ink and watercolor on board 

12x20 in. (30.5x50.8 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Librar)', UC San Diego 

451 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for MiE//igot's Pool (". . . that there IS 

something bigger"), 1947 

Pencil, ink, and watercolor on board 

14x21 in. (35.6x53.3 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Speci;il 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

Fig. 32 

452 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American. 

1904-91) 

McEIIigot's Pool 1947 

Published by Random House, New York 

11V4 in. (28.6 cm) 

453 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Endpapers iot Ifl Ran the Zoo, 1950 

Ink on board 

16y2 X 241/4 in. (41.9 X 61.6 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Librar); UC San Diego 

454 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Ifl Ran the Zoo. 1950 

PubHshed by Random House, New York 

121/4 in. (31.1cm) 

455 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; Anierican, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for On Beyom/ Zebra! ("There's a 

letter caUed \'EKK"), 1955 

Ink on board 

15x22 in. (38.1x55.9 cm) 

The Dr Seuss CoUection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, LIC San Diego 

456 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for On Beyond Zebra! ("Most people 

are scared to go on and beyond"), 1955 

Ink on board 

14x21 in. (35.6x53,3 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 



58 



457 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; Anierican, 

1904-91) 

On Beyond Zebra! X'iSS 

Published by Random House, New York 

111/4 in. (28.6 cm) 

458 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Cover layout for The Cat in the Hat, 1 957 

Ink on board with acetate overlay 

151/4 X 221^ in. (38.7 x 57.2 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

459 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; Anierican, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for The Cat in the Hat ("Look at me"), 

1957 

Ink on board with ink and colored pencil on 

tissue overlay 

13V^x 22 in. (34.3x55.9 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Speciid 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

460 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

The Cat in the Hat. 1957 

Published by Random House, New York 

9 1/4 in. (23.5 cm) 

461 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for How the Grineh Stole Christmas! 

("And the Grineh grabbed the tree"), 1957 

Ink on board 

201/4 X 26^4 in. (51.4 X 67.9 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mande\dlle Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

462 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

How the Grineh Stole Christmas! 1957 

Published by Random House, New York 

111/4 in. (28.6 cm) 

463 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; .Ajiierican, 

1904-91) 

Color rough for Happy Birthday to You! ("And 

so, as the sunset burns red in the west"), 1959 

127s X 191/4 in. (32.7 x 48.9 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mande\ille Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 



464 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Iheodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for Happy Birthday to You! (pages 

30-31), 1959 

Gouache on board 

13 X 191/4 in. (33 X 48.9 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

465 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing tor Happy Birthday to You! (pages 

32-33), 1959 

Gouache on board 

13 X \9^/z in. (33 X 49.5 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

466 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for Happy Birthday to You! (pages 

34-35), 1959 

Gouache on board 

13x191/4 in. (33 x 48.9 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mande\'ille Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

467 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; .American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for Happy Birthday to You! (pages 

40-41), 1959 

Gouache on board 

13 xl9V4 in. (33x49.5 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Librar}; UC San Diego 

468 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for Happy Birthday to You! (pages 

48-49), 1959 

Gouache on board 

13 X 191^ in. (33 X 49.5 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

469 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Happy Birthday to You! 1959 

Published by Random House, New York 

11 in. (27.9 cm) 

470 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; .\merican, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for Green Eggs and Ham ("Sam I 

am"), 1960 

Pencil and colored pencil 

81^x11 in. (21.6x27.9 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeville Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 



471 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for Green Eggs and Ham ("Do you 

like"), 1960 

Pencil and colored pencil 

8>/2xll in. (21.6x27.9 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeviile Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

472 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for Green Eggs and Ham ("Say! 1 like 

green eggs and ham"), 1960 

Ink on board with ink and colored pencil on 

tissue overlay 

15x20 in. (38.1x50.8 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeviile Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

473 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Green Eggs and Ham, 1 960 

Published by Random House, New York 

91/4 in. (23.5 cm) 

474 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for Dr Seuss's Sleep Book (title page), 

1962 

Ink on board 

9 XI2V2 in. (22.9x31.8 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeviile Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

475 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 
1904-91) 

Drawing for Dr. Seuss's Sleep Book ("Ninety- 
nine zillion"), 1962 
Ink on board 

12^x18 in. (31.8x45.7 cm) 
The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeviile Special 
Collections Library, UC San Diego 

476 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Dr. Seuss's Sleep Book, 1962 

Published by Random House, New York 

111/4 in. (28.6 cm) 

477 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

Drawing for / Can Lick Thirty Tigers Today! 

1969 

Gouache on board 

111/2 X 161/4 in. (29.2 x 41.3 cm) 

The Dr. Seuss Collection, Mandeviile Special 

Collections Library, UC San Diego 

Fig. 31 



478 

Dr. Seuss (pseud. Theodor Geisel; American, 

1904-91) 

/ Can Lick Thirty Tigers Today! 1969 

Pubhshed by Random Mouse, New York 

ll'/4 in. (28.6 cm) 



Holling C. Hollmg 

479 

HoUmg C. Holling (American, 1900-1973) 
Wooden model (or Paddle-to-the-Sea. 1941 
12 x2 X 3 in. (30.5x5.1 X 7.6 cm) 

480 

Holling C. HoUing (American, 1900-1973) 

Painted wooden model for Paddle- to-the-Sea, 

1941 

12 X 2 X 3 in. (30.5 x 5.1 x 7.6 cm) 

Figs. 33, 34 

481 

Hollmg C. Holling (American, 1900-1973) 

Illustrations for Paddle-to-the-Sea, 1941 

Seven watercolors 

12V4X 10 in. (31.1 X 25.4 cm) each 

Fig. 33 

482 

Hollmg C. Holling (American, 1900-1973) 

Paddle-to-the-Sea, 1941 

Published by Houghton Mifflin, Boston 

UVa in. (28.6 cm) 

483 

HoUing C. Holling (American, 1900-1973) 

Paddle-to-the-Sea, 1941 

Published by Houghton Mifflin, Boston 

imm. (28.6cm)^ 

484 

HoUmg C. Holling (American, 1900-1973) 
Illustrations for Tree in tie Trail 1942 
Three watercolors 

17 x 12 in. (43.2 x 30.5 cm); 14 V2 x 11 in. 
(36.8 X 27.9 cm); I51/4 x 13 in. (38.7 x 33 cm) 

485 

Holling C. Holling (American, 1900-1973) 
Wooden model for Tree in the Trail 1942 
5y2 X 41/2 X 2 in. (14 X 11.4 X 5.1 cm) 

486 

Holling C. Holling (American, 1900-1973) 

Tree in the Trail 1942 

Published by Houghton Mifflin, Boston 

IIV4 in. (28.6 cm) 

487 

Holling C. Holling (American, 1900-1973) 
Paddle-to-the-Sea, 1945 
Pubhshed by CoUins, London 
111/4 in. (28.6 cm) 



59 




A"s and Lirenturc 



' of Childreiis Litcratute 



World btnti 



m 




NOTES 



1. See Early ChiUiren\ Booh and Thetr lUintra- 
ttons (New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, 
1975), p. 213. 

2. See Gillian Avery, "The Beginnings of 
Children's Reading to c. 1700," in Children's 
Literature. An Illmtrnted Hntory, ed. Peter Hunt 
(Oxford and New York: Oxford University 
Press, 1995), p. 13. 

3. GiUian Avery notes that there were precedents 
for the seventeenth-century idea ot pleasure in 
learning and cites early e.xamples of this inter- 
est in such works as Roger Ascham's The 
Schoolmaster (1570); see ibid., p. 11. 

4. Quoted in Cornelia Meigs et al., A Critical 
History of Children's Literature: A Survey of 
Children's Books in English, rev. ed. (New York: 
Macmillan, 1969),p. 54. 

5. For a discussion of the origins of the idea of 
childhood and its relationship to art, see James 
Seward, The New Child, exh. cat. (Berkeley: 
Art Museum, University of California, 1996), 
p. 82ff 

6. See S. Roscoe, John NewBery and His Successors, 
1740~lSl-f (Wormley: Five Owls Press, 1973). 

7. For a discussion ot the authorship of Goody 
Two Shoes, see Mary F. Thwaite, From Primer 
to Pleasure in Reading, 2d ed. (London: Library 
Association, 1972), p. 50. 

8. Perrault's manuscript is in the Morgan 
Library; see Early Children's Books, p. 111. 

9. Quoted in Gillian Avery and Margaret 
Kinnell, "Morality and Levity (178O-1820)," in 
Hunt, ed.. Children's Literature, p. 69. 

10. See Peter Haining, Moveable Books: An 
Illustrated History (London: New English 
Library, 1979), p. lOfif. 

11. See Eric Quayle, The Collector's Book of 
Children's Books (London: November Books, 
1971), p. 130. 



12. For a discussion of Victorian views of 
childhood and literature, see Susan E. Meyer, A 
Treasury of the Great Children's Book Illustrators 
(New York Harry N. Abrams, 1983), p. 13ff. 

13. Michael Patrick Hearn, "Discover, Explore, 
Enjoy," in Myth, Magic, and Mystery, exh. cat. 
(Norfolk, Va.: Chrysler Museum of Arr, Boul- 
der, Colo.: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1996), 
p. 8. 

14. The same illustrations were used in 1884 to 
illustrate Andrew Lang's Princess Nobody (cat. 
no. 345). 

15. Meyer, Children's Book Illustrators, p. 27. 

16. Crane's contract with Routledge expired in 
1876. He went on to work with Evans inde- 
pendently and, from 1875 to 1889, illustrated 
books in black-and-white by Mrs. Molesworth 
(see ibid., p. 88). 

17. See ibid., p. 195. 



61 



u*_i 




D 






T, 



N J 





•a 



□QDE 



*Mli£': 




AlJcrson, Brian. The Liulfonl Box and "A 
Ciriitmass-Box." Occasional Paper no. 2. Los 
Angeles: Department of Special Collections, 
University' Research Library, University of 
California, 1989. 

Apostol, Jane. 0/ive Percival; Los Angeles Author 
and Bibliophile. Occasional Paper no. 7. Los 
Angeles: Department of Special Collections, 
Lfniversity Research Library, University of 
Ciilifornia, 1992. 

Avery, GllUan. Childhood's Pn/tern: A Sfiidy of 
the Heroes and Heroines of Children's Fiction. 
1770-1900. London; Hodder and Stoughton, 
1975.. 

Bingham, Jane, and Grayce Scholt. Fifteen 
Centuries of Children's Literature: An Annotated 
Chronology of British and American Works in 
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. Kate Greenaway. New York: Schocken 

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Hearn, Michael Patrick, et al. Myth. Magic, 
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Kohl, Herbert. Should We Burn Babarf Essays 
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Larson, Judy L. Enchanted Images: American 
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Meyer, Susan E. A Treasury of the Great 
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Moon, Marjorie./o/i« Harris's Books for Youth, 
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ISBN 0-9628162-6-4 




Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts 
Department of Special Collections, University Research Library 

University of California, Los Angeles